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01introduction - Chemical Principles of Marine Systems...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemical Principles of Marine Systems SIO141/CHEM174 Andrew Dickson Scripps Institution of Oceanography Monday, March 30, 2009 1 OK, time to introduce ourselves. 2 Goal of the course To help you to develop a basic understanding of the chemical principles underlying the concentrations and distributions of the various elements in sea water. 3 In particular, we will learn how various facets of marine chemistry can be seen to be a consequence of both the basic chemical properties of the elements themselves (electron structure, electronegativity, ionic size, reduction potentials, etc.), and of the unique properties of water as a solvent. 4 How do we plan to do this? Lectures (Mon / Wed / Fri WLH 2115) Discussion section (Wednesday WLH 2115) Assigned reading / library research / problems Group work (in and out of class) Questions and discussions (in class) Exams (mid-term & final) 5 Resources You will be able to download class-related materials (filed under SIO141) at http://reserves.ucsd.edu/ Useful web sites http://www.webelements.com/ http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/elements.html http://www.mbari.org/chemsensor/pteo.htm 6 What aspects of marine chemistry will we cover? Average concentrations of the elements in seawater and their mean residence time Speciation of the elements in sea water Reactions occurring at surfaces in sea water Biological chemistry of the elements in sea water Distributions of the elements in sea water 7 The chemical elements animated! http://www.privatehand.com/flash/elements.html 8 Concentrations of the elements in sea water 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 Concentration (mol/L) 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 Concentration (mol/L) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Atomic Number 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Atomic Number 9 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 Concentration (mol/L) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Atomic Number Periodic Table - http://www.theodoregray.com 10 Nature's Rosetta stone? 11 The real Rosetta Stone The real Rosetta Stone 12 13 Q1 So, which elements are at high concentrations in seawater? 14 Elements with concentrations > 1 mol Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 kg1 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 15 Elements with concentrations > 10 mmol Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 kg1 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 16 Elements with concentrations > 100 mol Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 kg1 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 17 Elements with concentrations > 1 mol Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 kg1 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 18 Q2 What do their profiles have in common? 19 Classification of profiles [X] depth Accumulated elements tR > 100,000 years 20 Q3 Are there other elements with similar profiles? 21 Accumulated elements Group 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 22 Residence time Input Reservoir Output The age of a particle at the time of its final departure from the reservoir is its residence time (). 23 Mean residence time Input Reservoir Output The mean residence time can be estimated from: Amount in reservoir = Rate of removal 24 1x106 1x105 1x104 Mean Oceanic Concentration (mol/L) 1x10 3 Oceanic concentrations plotted against mean residence times N Si F P I Fe Al Mn Zr Pb La Ce Cu Sb Zn Ti Cr Ba 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Na Mg S K B Sr Li Rb Br Cl Ca C 1x102 1x101 1x10 0 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10 1x10 1x10 -4 -5 -6 Atomic Number As V Mo Ni Cs U Co Ag Ga Hg Sn Th Nd Sc Gd Yb Pr Er Sm Ho Lu Eu Tm Tb Se Concentration (mol/L) Cd W Au 1x10-7 1x10 1x101 -8 1x102 1x103 1x104 1x105 1x106 Mean Residence Time (yr) 1x107 1x108 1x109 25 Q4 Are there other classes (shapes) of profile? 26 Classification of profiles [X] depth Recycled elements tR = 1,000 to 100,000 years 27 Recycled elements Group 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 28 Q5 What causes this shape? 29 Particle Cycle in the Ocean 30 Biologically active elements Group 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 31 Concentrations of the elements in sea water 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 Concentration (mol/L) 1x106 1x105 1x104 1x103 1x102 1x101 1x100 1x10-1 1x10-2 1x10-3 1x10-4 1x10-5 1x10-6 1x10-7 1x10-8 Concentration (mol/L) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Atomic Number 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Atomic Number 32 Classification of profiles [X] depth Recycled elements tR = 1,000 to 100,000 years 33 Q6 Are all the elements with a "recycled" profile biologically active? 34 Classification of profiles [X] depth Recycled elements tR = 1,000 to 100,000 years 35 Recycled elements Group 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 36 Biologically active elements Group 1 3 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (?) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 37 Q6 Why not? 38 Homework Download Nozaki poster and a periodic table from http://reserves.ucsd.edu/ (SIO141) Additional useful information http://www.mbari.org/chemsensor/pteo.htm Based on the Nozaki poster (and/or this web site), Color the periodic table to indicate different "classes" of profile (as many "classes" as seem to make sense to you) 39 ...
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