02periodicproperties-1

02periodicproperties-1 - Chemical Periodicity & the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemical Periodicity & the Periodic Table Chemical Principles of Marine Systems SIO141/CHEM174 Wednesday, April 1, 2009 1 Mendeleyev & the Periodic Table Based his periodic table on his knowledge of the properties of the elements: Atomic weight A few physical properties Formul of hydrides and oxides 2 Mendeleyev's earliest periodic table (1869) H=1 Be = 9,4 B = 11 C = 12 N = 14 O = 16 F = 19 Na = 23 Mg = 24 Al = 27.4 Si = 28 P = 31 S = 32 Cl = 35,5 K = 39 Ca = 40 ? = 45 ? Er = 56 ? Yt = 60 ? In = 75,6 Li = 7 Ti = 50 V = 51 Cr = 52 Mn = 55 Fe = 56 Ni = Co = 59 Cu = 63,4 Zn = 65.2 ? = 68 ? = 70 As = 75 Se = 79.4 Br = 80 Rb = 85,4 Sr = 87.6 Ce = 92 La = 94 Di = 95 Th = 118? Zr = 90 Nb = 94 Mo = 96 Rh = 104,4 Ru = 104,4 Pd = 106,6 Ag = 108 Cd = 112 Ur = 112 Sn = 118 Sb = 122 Te = 128? J = 127 Cs = 133 Ba = 137 ? = 180 Ta = 182 W = 186 Pt = 197.4 Ir = 198 Os = 199 Hg = 200 Au = 197 ? Bi = 210 ? Tl = 204 Pb = 207 3 He felt some of the atomic weights must be wrong! H=1 Be = 9,4 B = 11 C = 12 N = 14 O = 16 F = 19 Na = 23 Mg = 24 Al = 27.4 Si = 28 P = 31 S = 32 Cl = 35,5 K = 39 Ca = 40 ? = 45 ? Er = 56 ? Yt = 60 ? In = 75,6 Li = 7 Ti = 50 V = 51 Cr = 52 Mn = 55 Fe = 56 Ni = Co = 59 Cu = 63,4 Zn = 65.2 ? = 68 ? = 70 As = 75 Se = 79.4 Br = 80 Rb = 85,4 Sr = 87.6 Ce = 92 La = 94 Di = 95 Th = 118? Zr = 90 Nb = 94 Mo = 96 Rh = 104,4 Ru = 104,4 Pd = 106,6 Ag = 108 Cd = 112 Ur = 112 Sn = 118 Sb = 122 Te = 128? J = 127 Cs = 133 Ba = 137 ? = 180 Ta = 182 W = 186 Pt = 197.4 Ir = 198 Os = 199 Hg = 200 Au = 197 ? Bi = 210 ? Tl = 204 Pb = 207 4 He predicted some (then unknown) elements! H=1 Be = 9,4 B = 11 C = 12 N = 14 O = 16 F = 19 Na = 23 Mg = 24 Al = 27.4 Si = 28 P = 31 S = 32 Cl = 35,5 K = 39 Ca = 40 ? = 45 ? Er = 56 ? Yt = 60 ? In = 75,6 Li = 7 Ti = 50 V = 51 Cr = 52 Mn = 55 Fe = 56 Ni = Co = 59 Cu = 63,4 Zn = 65.2 ? = 68 ? = 70 As = 75 Se = 79.4 Br = 80 Rb = 85,4 Sr = 87.6 Ce = 92 La = 94 Di = 95 Th = 118? Zr = 90 Nb = 94 Mo = 96 Rh = 104,4 Ru = 104,4 Pd = 106,6 Ag = 108 Cd = 112 Ur = 112 Sn = 118 Sb = 122 Te = 128? J = 127 Cs = 133 Ba = 137 ? = 180 Ta = 182 W = 186 Pt = 197.4 Ir = 198 Os = 199 Hg = 200 Au = 197 ? Bi = 210 ? Tl = 204 Pb = 207 5 Q1 Can you see other problems with this table? 6 Mendeleyev's earliest periodic table (1869) No Tc Ti = 50 V = 51 Cr = 52 Mn = 55 Fe = 56 Ni = Co = 59 Cu = 63,4 Zn = 65.2 ? = 68 ? = 70 As = 75 Se = 79.4 Br = 80 Rb = 85,4 Sr = 87.6 Ce = 92 La = 94 Di = 95 Th = 118? Zr = 90 Nb = 94 Mo = 96 Rh = 104,4 Ru = 104,4 Pd = 106,6 Ag = 108 Cd = 112 Ur = 112 Sn = 118 Sb = 122 Te = 128? J = 127 Cs = 133 Ba = 137 ? = 180 Ta = 182 W = 186 Pt = 197.4 Ir = 198 Os = 199 Hg = 200 Au = 197 ? Bi = 210 ? H=1 Be = 9,4 B = 11 C = 12 N = 14 O = 16 F = 19 Na = 23 Mg = 24 Al = 27.4 Si = 28 P = 31 S = 32 Cl = 35,5 K = 39 Ca = 40 ? = 45 ? Er = 56 ? Yt = 60 ? In = 75,6 Li = 7 Tl = 204 Pb = 207 Problems with atomic weights, valencies, etc. No noble gases 7 Later arrangement of Mendeleyev's periodic table (1872) 8 A modern periodic table Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (297) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 9 The modern periodic table is ordered according to atomic number and is typically arranged to illustrate the electronic structure of the atoms. 10 Four quantum numbers 1. Principal quantum number (n) 2. Orbital (angular momentum) quantum number (l) 3. Magnetic quantum number (m) 4. Spin (angular momentum) quantum number (mS) 11 Q2 What values can these quantum numbers take? 12 Principal quantum number n can take values: 1, 2, 3, . . . 13 Orbital quantum number l can take values: 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . where l = 0, 1, . . ., n-1 Orbitals corresponding to different orbital quantum numbers are typically identified by the designators: s, p, d, f, . . . which are named after the spectral emission lines of the hydrogen atom: sharp, principal, diffuse, fundamental, 14 Magnetic quantum number can take values: l m +l 15 Spin quantum number mS can take values: 1/2, + 1/2 16 17 Pauli Exclusion Principle This states that every electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers. Thus there are a maximum of two electrons (of opposite "spin") in any individual orbital. 18 Orbital shapes and symmetry Orbital shapes are associated with the angular part of the wave function. For a given orbital, such as s or pz, the angular wave function is largely independent of the principal quantum number (or energy level). 19 Q3 What shapes are the various electronic orbitals? 20 21 Note that: As the principal quantum number increases, the size and details of the radial node structure change, but the basic shape is essentially unchanged. The electron density distribution is a similar shape(strictly the square of the wave function). A set of orbitals that is filled with electrons is spherically symmetrical. 22 Approximate orbital filling order l=0 n=1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 23 1 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 2 3 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Periodic table (based on electronic structure Group 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 5 14 6 15 7 1s 16 8 1 2 H 17 9 He 18 10 1.0089 4.003 s 3 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra p B Al C Si Ge Sn Pb N P As Sb Bi O S Se Te Po F Cl Br I At Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 6.941 9.012 12 11 22.99 24.30 20 19 39.10 40.08 38 37 85.47 87.62 56 55 132.9 137.3 88 87 (223) (226) 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 15 18 14 17 16 13 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 33 36 32 35 34 31 d 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Sc Y Lu Lr Ti Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc (99) 75 Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Ga In Tl 44.96 47.877 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 46 53 43 52 41 45 49 42 51 47 54 44 50 40 48 39 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 72 73 74 71 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3 78 85 84 77 81 83 79 86 76 82 80 Re Bh 175.0 178.5 181.0 183.8 183.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 (210) (210) (222) 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 (262) (261) (262) (266) (264) (277) (268) (271) (272) (277) UUb UUt UUq UUp Uuh UUs UUo (?) 67 (289) 68 (?) 69 (292) 70 (?) (297) f 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb No 138.9 140.1 140.9 144.2 (147) 150.4 152.0 157.3 158.9 162.5 164.9 167.3 168.9 173.0 95 92 90 94 98 91 100 101 102 96 93 89 99 97 (227) 232.0 231.0 238.0 (237) (239) (241) (244) (249) (252) (252) (257) (258) (259) 24 Numerous forms of periodic table exist 25 26 27 28 Q4 Where can I find all these periodic tables? 29 The Web http://www.webelements.com http://www.ch.cam.ac.uk/resources/misc/weii http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Elements http://pubs.acs.org/cen/80th/elements.html http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/PT.html or try Google 30 Homework (A) Draw the shapes of all five d orbitals (B) Find plots of periodic properties 1. Ionization energies (first) 2. Electronegativity 3. Covalent radii of the elements 4. Ion sizes (same charge) HINT: Explore WebElements! 31 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2009 for the course SIO 141 taught by Professor Dickson,a during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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