ASTR 5 Book Notes

ASTR 5 Book Notes - ASTR 5 Chapter 1 Star Planet Extrasolar...

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ASTR 5 Chapter 1 Star Large, glowing balls of gas that generate heat and light through nuclear fusion —the smashing together of light nuclei to make heavier nuclei—in their cores. Planet A moderately large object—either rocky or gaseous—that orbits a star Extrasolar Planet A planet orbiting a star other than our Sun Habitable Planet A planet with environmental conditions under which life could potentially arise or survive Moon/Satellite An object that orbits a planet Asteroid A relatively small and rocky object that orbits a star; sometimes called minor planets Comet A relatively small and icy object that orbits a star Star System One or more stars and any planets and other material that orbit them Galaxy A great island of stars in space, containing from a few hundred million to a trillion or more stars, all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center Universe/Cosmos The sum total of all matter and energy; that is, everything within and between all galaxies Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence/SETI Efforts involving scanning the skies for signals broadcast by aliens Nuclear Fusion The process in which two (or more) smaller nuclei slam together and make one larger nucleus; it is the primary process by which stars generate their energy Terrestrial Planets Planets made up almost entirely of metal and rock Jovian Planets Planets made up mostly of ice, hydrogen, and helium Solar Wind Consisting of particles blown off its surface and out into space. A stream of charged particles ejected from the Sun. Astrobiology The science of life in the universe Chapter 2 Model Explain and predict real phenomena Geocentric Model A spherical Earth surrounded by the sphere of the heavens Apparent Retrograde Motion The period during which the planet moves backward Stellar Parallax Shift in position of stars due to Earth’s rotation around the Sun; too small to see with the naked eye Ptolemaic Model The Earth-centered model of the universe created by Ptolemy in about A.D. 150 and used until the Copernican revolution Copernican Revolution The Dramatic change in human perspective that occurred when the ancient geocentric belief was replaced by the idea that the Earth is a planet orbiting the Sun Kepler’s Laws Of Planetary Motion 1) Orbits of all planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus 2) A planet’s speed varies in such a way that it sweeps out equal area in equal times 3) The more distant planets orbit the Sun more slowly Discovery Science Involves going out and looking at nature in a general way in hopes of learning something new and unexpected Hypothesis-driven Science Involves proposing an idea and then performing experiments or making observations that put it to the test Historical Science Involves looking at present-day evidence to try to discover something about past events Experimental Science Seeks to uncover general principles of physics, chemistry, or other sciences, usually by carrying out specific experiments in a lab
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course ASTR 5 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '06 term at UCLA.

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ASTR 5 Book Notes - ASTR 5 Chapter 1 Star Planet Extrasolar...

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