The Family & Household Transition
family building by fate to family building by design
The transition is the increasing diversity in family and household structure occasioned by people living longer, with fewer children born, increasingly in urban settings, and
to higher standards of living, all as part of the demographic transition.
If people live longer, more likely to be widowed, want a divorce, marry later due to less pressure
to have children early, etc.
Life chances - changes in the population characteristics that influence how your life will turn out.
Access to education, labor force participation, occupation, etc. influence
outcome of life.
Family - any group of people related to one another by
marriage, birth, or adoption; nuclear - parent and child; extended - grandparents, other gen's, relatives (aunts, uncles,
Housing unit - physical space used as separate living quarters for people
Household - people who share a housing unit, residential unit.
Family household - housing unit occupied by people who are all related to one another
Nonfamily household - housing unit that includes a person living alone, cohabitating couples, etc.
Family part of a household is a kinship unit, whereas household part of it makes it a consumption unit.
Family demography - families represent fusion of people who were born into other families, and it will fissure into yet other families.
Fusion / Fission
Ascribed characteristics - sex, gender, race, ethnicity - no control over
Achieved characteristics - personal human capital like education, occupation, income, marital status, labor force participation, etc.
Growing diversity in household composition/family structure:
more cohabitation, divorces, widowers, unmarried people living together, older adults raising their grandchildren,
married couples with no children, etc.
Rise in status of women between 1970 and 2000 has increased dramatically the number of female-headed families with children.
Over time, percent of total households that
are married couples with children has dropped while the percent of households that are female-headed w/ children has increased.
Also, more nonfamily co-residents:
habitators, single householder who rents out rooms, friends living together, etc.
Gender equity / empowerment of women
Women increased options in life by postponing marriage.
As percentage of women married at ages 15-19 increases, the age difference between husband does as well.
marriage - suppresses life chances of women as they are expected to be sexually submissive, participate solely in childbearing and household activities, etc. (developing