Lecture 03 - webnotes - Introduction Empire in the west...

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Lecture 3: The early history of globalization, 1500 to 1800 AD Introduction Empire in the west Encroachment in the east When did globalization begin? Conclusions
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The early history of globalization To paraphrase Marx and Engels paraphrasing Adam Smith, the two critical events of the modern world were: “the discovery of America, [and] the rounding of the Cape [of Good Hope]” in 1492 and 1488, respectively.
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The early history of globalization This is traditionally the starting point for historians dating globalization: “The European discoveries made the oceans of the earth into highways for their commerce.” (McNeil, 1999)
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The early history of globalization This Eurocentric view of the core and periphery has been challenged; But the fact remains that 1500 marks a key date in history. Our question for the week: did globalization begin in 1500?
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The early history of globalization But first, what were the historical developments of this period? With the “discovery” of the Americas, we see the extension of European empire in the Western hemisphere. With the rounding of the Cape, we see the encroachment of European interests in the Eastern hemisphere.
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Empire in the West The period starting from 1500, thus, corresponds with the rise of European overseas empires. This was to have a tremendous impact on the course of history and globalization. And probably no more so than in the Americas.
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Empire in the West
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Empire in the West The extension of overseas empire was a much more prominent feature in the Western hemisphere. But why? The roles of:
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Empire in the West Early Spanish attempts to harness New World resources and the encomienda. In exchange for churches and Spanish, native populations provide tribute to titleholders in the form of goods or labor.
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Empire in the West
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Empire in the West Although African slaves had been in the Americas from 1510, their numbers were limited until the late 1500s. With ongoing demographic collapse in the Americas, existing system of forced labour imposed on the natives faltered.
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Empire in the West The transatlantic shipment of slaves 1500s: 70,000 1600s: 1.4 million 1700s: 7.15 million Primary occupation was the production of cash crops in ready demand in Europe.
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At the other end, Europe was also reaping the benefits of immense mineral wealth from the Americas. The flow of bullion (gold and silver)
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Lecture 03 - webnotes - Introduction Empire in the west...

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