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311C_F08_chap 8_part2 - Introduction to metabolism Chapter...

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Introduction to metabolism Chapter 8 – part 2
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Fig. 8-8 Phosphate groups Ribose Adenine ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Is the cell’s energy shuttle Provides energy for cellular functions Figure 8.8 The structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Large electrostatic repulsion between phosphate groups…so its easy to break one of them off and it is an exergonic rxn (releases energy)
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Energy is released from ATP When the terminal phosphate bond is broken Figure 8.9 P Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) H 2 O + Energy Inorganic phosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P P P P i In a test tube – energy of 7.3 kcal will be lost as heat, but not in a cell
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The ATP cycle ATP is used for endergonic rxns. Use enzyme to synthesize ATP. ATP synth occur during respiration
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Energy coupling Cells use energy from an exergonic process to drive an endergonic process
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Glutamate forms glutamine using energy (endergonic rxn). This can be coupled with exergonic rxn that releases energy. Rxn is now favored bc it is now exergonic Glutamate Glutamine (amino acid)
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The three types of cellular work Are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP (c) Chemical work: ATP phosphorylates key reactants P Membrane protein Motor protein P i Protein moved (a) Mechanical work: ATP phosphorylates motor proteins ATP (b) Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins Solute P P i transported Solute Glu Glu NH 3 NH 2 P i P i + + Reactants: Glutamic acid and ammonia Product (glutamine) made ADP + P Figure 8.11 **KNOW THIS
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The hydrolysis Is an example of a chemical reaction Figure 8.13 H 2 O H H H H HO OH OH OH O O O O O H H H H H H H CH 2 OH CH 2 OH OH CH 2 OH Sucrase HO HO OH OH CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH H CH 2 OH H O Sucrose Glucose Fructose C 12 H 22 O 11 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 + H OH H
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The activation energy, E A Is the initial amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction Is often supplied in the form of heat from the surroundings in a system
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