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Unformatted text preview: Kimberly Zhang “People’s Republic of China” Reading Great Leap Forward 1958-1960 1. Strains between USSR and CCP a. Unperceived outside China were strained relations between Beijing and Moscow, whose tensions long preceded the establishment of the PRC in October 1949 i. Mao encouraged heterodox theory of rural revolution, exhibited independence unacceptable to Stalin ii. April 1946, Stalin believed Mao was unlikely to win China 1. Stalin took mining, steel factories from Manchuria to Siberia iii. Stalin sent meager aid to Yan’an during Sino-Japanese War, reluctant to offer any encouragement in 1945 because of American possession of atomic bomb b. December 1949, Mao went to Moscow to sign thirty-year treaty of ‘friendship’ i. No discussion allowed of tsarist borders, financial aid offered was less than the loan granted a year earlier to Poland ii. USSR expected to be repaid with interest in short period of time iii. Mao had little choice when it came to seeking foreign aid for reconstruction c. US assumed USSR and CCP were collaborating 2. 1956, China succeeded in fulfilling its domestic and international goals a. PRC had inherited war-torn economy, chronic inflation, high unemployment, outmoded methods of production i. By 1956, country largely overcame impoverishment ii. Strong centralist state existed again after decades of disunity, program of modernization underway, China’s international position reasserted by fighting world’s greatest military power in stalemate in Korea b. Mao’s stages of som i. Initial step was growth of heavy industry ii. Following USSR model, heavy industry would be key to development of light industry, then agriculture, whose harvest levels could be raised only be extensive mechanization 3. Hundred Flowers movement in 1956-57 a. After 1955, growth of agricultural cooperatives drove up production levels in many provinces, situation was judged right for another step forward b.b....
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- Spring '09
- Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Cultural Revolution, Great Leap Forward