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Chapter 4:GenderDevelopment
How Central Are Sex andGender in Early DevelopmentParents attribute qualities to their newborns.Sex is one of the main cues that they use.Parents project gender onto their infantswith proclamations such as, “What a stronggrip he has!” and, “She’s got such delicatefeatures!”Bosson,The Psychology of Sex andGender 1eSAGE Publishing, 20182
Terms & DefinitionsGender Identity: sense of belonging to a sexcategoryGender Expression: the way in which a personexpresses a gender identity, typically throughtheir appearance, dress, and behavior.May not“match” their own gender identityGender Stereotypes: beliefs about the qualitiesassociated with people of different sexesGendered Self-Views: beliefs about the selfalong masculine & feminine trait dimensionsBosson, The Psychology of Sex andGender 1e SAGE Publishing, 20183
Terms & DefinitionsGender Roles: Sets of behaviorsassociated with genderGendered Preferences: Preferenceto engage in activities associated withone sex or the other (such as toy andplay activity)Gender-Based Prejudices: Positiveor negative feelings about people ofdifferent sexesBosson, The Psychology of Sex andGender 1e SAGE Publishing, 20184
Theoretical ApproachesMajor theories of gender development fall into two broadcategories: social learning theoriesandcognitive theories.Both types of theories address a set of common questionsabout how children acquire gendered beliefs and preferences.5Social LearningTheoryGender-typing behaviorleads to gender identity.Cognitive-DevelopmentalTheorySelf-perceptions (genderconstancy) come beforebehavior.
Theoretical Approaches:Social LearningMischel (1966), the first theorist to applysocial learning theory to genderdevelopment, definedsex typingas theprocesses by which individuals acquiregendered behavior patterns.According to social learning theory, certainbehaviors elicit different patterns of rewardand punishment for children of differentsexes.Bosson,The Psychology of Sex andGender 1eSAGE Publishing, 20186
Social LearningTheoryWe learn what it means to be male orfemale, masculine or feminine byobserving others (IRL or in the media)We model/imitate othersReinforcement of gender-typed behaviorsleads to an increase in these behaviors,while punishment of “inappropriate”behaviors leads to a decrease in thesebehaviors© 2017 Taylor & Francis7
ModelingConditions that influence whether modelingoccurs:Positive relation between observer and modelConsequences of behavior are positive rather thannegativeModel is in position of powerModel is same sex and behaves in gendercongruent wayWhy do we model the behavior of others?Teaches us how to perform behaviorSuggests behavior is appropriateMakes behavior cognitively accessible8
Gender-RoleSocializationDifferent people & objects in a child’senvironment provide rewards and modelsthat shape behavior to fit gender-role normsContributes not only to actual sex differencesbut the

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Term
Spring
Professor
ToniM.Plummer
Tags
The Psychology of Sex

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