Roughgarde, Evolution's Rainbow intro

Roughgarde, Evolution's Rainbow intro - To my sisters on...

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2003024SI2 To my sisters on the street To my sisters everywhere To people everywhere Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Roughgarden, Joan. Evolution's rainbow: diversity, gender, and sexuality in nature and people I Joan Roughgarden. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-52°-24°73-1 (alk. paper) .I. Biological diversity. 2. Sexual behavior in animals. 3. Gender identity. 4. Sexual orientation. I. Title. QH54I.IS·BS6.R682004 30S·3-dc22 Manufactured in the United States of America 13 12 II 10 09 08 07 06 os 04 10 9 8 7 6 S 4 3 2 I The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-I992(R 1997) (Per- manenceof Paper). University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 2004 by Joan Roughgarden
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Contents Introduction: Diversity Denied / I PART ONE ANIMAL RAINBOWS Sex and Diversity / 13 2 Sex versus Gender / 22 3 Sex within Bodies / 30 4 Sex Roles / 43 5 Two-Gender Families / 49 6 Multiple-Gender Families / 75 7 Female Choice / I06 8 Same-Sex Sexuality / 127 9 The Theory of Evolution / 159 PART TWO HUMAN RAINBOWS 10 An Embryonic Narrative / 185 11 Sex Determination / 196 12 Sex Differences / 207 13 Gender Identity / 238
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley Los Angeles London Joan Roughgarden Evolution's Rainbow Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature People -~----_._._-~. ~~- --"~" -------~----- -- ------ _._~. __ ._"~. "-~"--_._"_._-"-----_.~._------- _._~-"-_. .. -~- . ~====~"'i" r~~~~~--""-_·=
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14 Sexual Orientation / 245 15 PsychologicalPerspectives / 262 16 Disease versus Diversity / 280 17 Genetic Engineering versus Diversity / 3 06 PART THREE CULTURAL RAINBOWS 18 Two-Spirits, Mahu, and Hijras / 329 19 Transgender in Historical Europe and the Middle East / 352 20 Sexual Relations in Antiquity / 367 ·21 Tomboi, Vestidas, and Guevedoche / 377 22 Trans Politics in the United States / 387 Appendix: Policy Recommendations / 401 Notes / 409 Index / 461 INTRODUCTION Diversity Denied On a hot, sunny day in June of 1997, I attended my first gay pride pa- rade, in San Francisco. The size of the crowd amazed me. As I marched from Civic Center up Market Street to San Francisco Bay, a throng of onlookers six persons deep on both sides shouted encouragement and support. For the first time, I felt the sheer magnitude of the gay com- munity. I stored this impression in the back of my mind. How, I wondered, does biology account for such a huge population that doesn't match the template science teaches as normal? When scientific theory says SOme- thing's wrong with so many people, perhaps the theory is wrong, not the people. It wasn't just the number of gay people that astonished me, but the di- versity of personal expression in the parade. A drag queen or two were featured in the newspapers, but many other, less flamboyant presenta- tions with different mixtures of gendered symbols were evident as well. I was intrigued, and resolved to investigate further if I ever got the chance. During the next few months I intended to transition into a trans- gendered woman.' I didn't know what the future held-whether I'd be fired as a biology professor, whether I'd become a nightclub waitress, whether I'd even stay alive. I couldn't make long-term plans.
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2009 for the course SWMS 210gm taught by Professor Marciniak during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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Roughgarde, Evolution's Rainbow intro - To my sisters on...

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