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europe20091 - CHAPTER 1 EUROPE"Site Characteristics That...

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CHAPTER 1 EUROPE "Site" Characteristics That Have Benefited the Continent: *FERTILE SOILS *MINERALS *DIVERSE TERRAIN *COMPLIMENTARITY *TERRAIN NOT SO RUGGED AS TO IMPEDE HUMAN MOVEMENT *NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS *HUMAN DIVERSITY *MILD CLIMATE ............. WHY ? EUROPE'S "SITUATION": Centrally Located In Relation to Much of the Rest of the World EUROPE’s Climate--Factors Responsible Continental Climate v. Maritime Climate (1) Large bodies of water retain heat longer (2) Land surfaces heat & cool more quickly (3) Bodies of water can bring warm water year- round via consistent currents Terms/Concepts: EUROPE: Regions *Around 40 countries in Europe *This myriad of people, cultures and lands is organized into 5 PRINCIPAL REGIONS: 1. Western Europe 2. British Isles 3. Northern Europe 4. Eastern Europe 5. Mediterranean Europe 1. WESTERN EUROPE France, Germany, "Benelux" countries, Switzerland Austria, Liechtenstein ( 1.)"BENELUX" COUNTRIES - Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg * Illustrate 2 important concepts in human geography: COMPLIMENTARITY & SUPRANATIONALISM * COMPLIMENTARITY: situation in which 2 countries/regions can satisfy each others economic needs through exchange of raw materials or finished/manufactured goods * SUPRANATIONALISM: an arrangement between 3 or more countries wherein they cooperate to achieve a common political, economic or other goal The BENELUX agreement (1944) was the first major step toward trend of European SUPRANATIONALISM ----------------------------------------------------------- (2.) GERMANY - *largest pop. of Western Eur.--over 80 million *largest economy in Europe History: *Inhabited in ancient times by "TEUTONS" *Started to emerge as a political entity in 9th century as a component of the "Holy Roman Empire" *19th Century--modern Germany emerges King Wilhelm I crowned 1871 *History/tradition of expansionism predates county's modern era--and served as catalyst for WWII *Following WWII, Germ. divided into 4 zones of occupation *1949--3 zones become the "Federal Republic of Germany" (West G.) *1949--Russian zone becomes the "German Democratic Republic" (East G.) *Strong sentiment for German re-unification always present *Collapse of Communism allows possibility of re-unification of Germany *1990--1st free, all-German election in 58 years
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Post-War Economic Miracle In Germany (West) Factors Contributing to Recovery: (1) Abundant Natural Resources (2) Location Near/Bordering All Other Prosperous Countries of Europe (3) Highly Efficient Transportation System (4) Security Afforded by N.A.T.O. (5) Marshall Plan (3.) FRANCE- History: *one of Europe's oldest states/societies *Roman province by 1st century B.C. *Paris pre-dates ancient Rome; became capital of Gaul by 9th century A.D. *French Revolution (1789-95) is of global significance--why ? *France' Role in WWII ? Relations w/ the US ? SITE - France *mild climate *fertile soils(1/3 land arable) *agriculturally very productive *excellent educational sys. (99% literacy) *economically prosperous (per capita GNP of $24K+ *industrialized--but industry in decline SITUATION- France *central to Western Europe ----------------------------------------------------------- (4.) SWITZERLAND - *physiography dominated by the Alps *700 year tradition of independence/ isolationism .......... WHY ?
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