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ch12 - Chapter 12 Gases and Their Properties 1 I.Pressure...

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1 Chapter 12: Gases and Their Properties

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2 I.Pressure, Volume, and Temperature Relationships A.Pressure, volume, and temperature units B.Boyle's law C.Charles' law D.Gay-Lussac's law E.Avogadro's law II.The Ideal-Gas Equation A.The combined gas laws B.STP and molar volume C.Gas densities and molar mass D.Stoichiometry of gas-phase reactions E.Dalton's law of partial pressures 1.Dalton’s law 2.mole fraction 3.collecting gases over water III.The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases A.Kinetic-molecular theory B.Graham's law of effusion
3 Pressure = -measured with barometer or manometer force unit area SI: 1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2 common: 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 14.7 lb/in 2 (psi) = 101.325 kPa = 1.013 bar Volume: mL, L Temperature: K I.Pressure, Volume, and Temperature Relationships A.Pressure, volume, and temperature units

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4 Robert Boyle, 1662: for a sample of gas at constant T , V 1/ P V = or PV = constant P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (at constant T ) constant P Jacques Charles, 1787: for a sample of gas at constant P , V T (K) V = constant x T or = constant V T V 1 T 1 V 2 T 2 = (at constant P ) I.Pressure, Volume, and Temperature Relationships A.Boyle's law A.Charles’ law
5 Joseph Gay-Lussac, ~1800: for a sample of gas at constant V , P T (K) P = constant x T or = constant P T P 1 T 1 P 2 T 2 = (at constant V ) Amadeus Avogadro, 1811: at constant T and P , V n V = constant x n or = constant V n V 1 n 1 V 2 n 2 = (at constant T & P ) I.Pressure, Volume, and Temperature Relationships A.Gay-Lussac's law A.Avogadro’s law

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6 A 0.500-L internal combustion cylinder fills with gas at 718 torr.
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