Outline 09 2008 - Lecture 09 CELL EVOLUTION Summary Until...

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Lecture 09: CELL EVOLUTION Summary. Until just a few years ago, the relationships between the different kingdoms of organisms were based on structural similarities and biochemical tests. Protists, plants, animals and fungi were recognized as having cell structure in common – they all have a true nucleus, while bacteria do not. The evolutionary relationships between groups of microorganisms was confused and it was unclear how bacteria and eukaryotic organisms are related. With the advent of new methodologies in systematics and sequencing techniques (for proteins and DNA), a new phylogenetic tree uniting all living organisms emerged. These first trees were based on ribosomal RNA gene sequence comparisons. We now recognize three distinct domains of cellular organisms: the Bacteria, the Archaea and the Eukarya. Such gene-based comparisons have provided strong evidence for the origins of the mitochondrion and chloroplast as well. Phylogenetic surveys of microbes are beginning to reveal their tremendous evolutionary diversity. Bacteria and archaea
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