Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes - 1 Lecture 1 Japanese Islands: Before...

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1 Lecture 1 – Japanese Islands: Before Historical Times Japan: L o Japan Nihon (origin of the sun) (east of China) o Suiko Tennô (600): claimed to rule “the land where the sun rises” o “Nihon” used from late 7 th Century Early Names of “Japan” o & : Wa Character used in 3 rd Century Chinese Account. Meaning: Land of Small People o & : Wa Character used by “Japanese” to refer to “Japan” Meaning: Harmony Geography of Japanese Islands o Ocean Highway or barrier? Mediated foreign influence o Mountains Internal barriers Strong sense of regionalism Islands & Continent: China and Korean Peninsula o Rice cultivation o Use of metals o Writing system o Confucianism o Buddhism o Ideas of statecraft Asian Continent: China o Early development of civilization Agriculture: 5 th millennium BCE Metal technology, writing: 2d millennium Central control over wide area by 200 BCE o Confucianism aided state building Hierarchical system Responsibility of ruler to govern well Learning and merit emphasized Korean Peninsula o Chinese imports came through Korea o Southern Korean peninsula, western Japanese islands: largely the same people o Stared cultural and religious elements Sun worship Shamanism Burial practices Pottery styles Prehistory: Evidence o Mythology Oral tales recorded: Kojiki, Nihon shoki What were the oldest forms? How did the tales change and why? o Rituals and festivals o Observations from outside Chinese visitors to archipelago
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2 Jômon Culture: 8000-300 BCE o Jômon: culture NOT period; Jômon culture pushed northward o Hunting/gathering o Polished stone tools o Late Jômon: some agriculture Yayoi Culture: 300 BCE – 250 CE o Introduction of rice agriculture o By immigrants from the continent? o New social organization Settled communities Social hierarchy Specialization Technological development, e.g. iron Warfare Yayoi Burial Site, Fukuoka o People were buried in flexed positions in jars Himiko and Yamatai o 3 rd Century records of Chinese visit to northern Kyushu and beyond o Himiko: female shamanic ruler who sent representatives to Chinese court o Evidence of political consolidation o Where is Yamatai? o Hierarchical society o Economy: fishing, agriculture, weaving, sericulture o System of taxation o Granaries and markets o Purification rituals o Divination using bone o Periodic warfare Burial Mound Culture o Himiko buried in large mounded tomb o Burial mounds: evidence of territorial consolidation (app. 3 rd -6 th centuries) o Grave goods Ritual bronzes Bead Jewelry Mirrors From 5 th Century: equestrian objects, weapons What do the tombs tell us?
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Lecture Notes - 1 Lecture 1 Japanese Islands: Before...

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