CH008 - 1

CH008 - 1 - CHAPTER 8 PERCEPTION 8-1 Information Processing...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 8 PERCEPTION 8-1 Information Processing for Consumer Decision Making 8-2 Exposure Types of Exposure 1. Selective Exposure The highly selective nature of consumer exposure is a major concern for marketers, since failure to gain exposure results in lost communication and sales opportunities. Although consumers often avoid commercials and other marketing stimuli, sometimes they actively seek them out for various reasons including purchase goals, entertainment, and information. 8-3 2. Voluntary Exposure Types of Exposure Selective Exposure The impact of self-selecting media exposure Zipping Zapping Muting 8-4 Exposure Selective Exposure and DVRs DVRs in 20% of U.S. Households DVR may increase ad avoidance although evidence is mixed Strategies to adapt in a DVR world Still-frame ads Hybrid ads Interactive ads 8-5 Attention Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and is the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing. Attention is determined by three factors: 1. Stimulus Factors Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from another Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment 8-6 2. Individual Factors 3. Situational Factors Attention Stimulus Factors Size Intensity Attractive Visuals Color and Movement Position Isolation Format Contrast and Expectations Interestingness Information Quantity 8-7 Attention Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look Color and Movement Color and movement attract attention. A brightly colored package or display is more likely to received attention. Color and movement are also important in ads. Source: 1"How Important is Color to an Ad?" Starch Tested Copy. February 1989, p.1. Roper Starch Worldwide, Inc. Color and Size Impact on Attention1 8-8 Attention Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look Position Position is the placement of an object in physical space or time. In retail stores, items that are easy to find or stand out are more likely to attract attention, such as end-caps and kiosks. High impact zones in print ads in the U.S. tend to be toward the top left portion of the ad. End-caps provide a way to capture the shopper's attention 8-9 Attention Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look Contrast and Expectations Consumers pay more attention to stimuli that contrast with their background. Expectations drive perceptions of contrast. Ads that differ from expectations for a product category often motivate more attention. Adaptation level theory suggests that if a stimulus doesn't change over time we This billboard ad provides contrast habituate to it and begin to notice it for enhanced attention. less. 8-10 Attention Individual Factors Individual Factors - characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Motivation the drive created by consumer interest and needs. Ability the capacity of individuals to attend to and process information. 8-11 Attention Situational Factors Situational Factors include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment. Clutter the density of stimuli in the environment. Program Involvement 8-12 Attention Situational Factors: A Closer Look Program Involvement Program involvement refers to interest in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads. Program involvement has a positive influence on attention (see graph). Source: 1"Cahners Advertising Research Report 120.1 and 120.12 (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated). 8-13 Attention Nonfocused Attention Hemispheric lateralization Subliminal Stimuli 8-14 Attention Nonfocused Attention Hemispheric Lateralization refers to activities that take place on each side of the brain. The left side of the brain controls activities related to rational thought. The right side of the brain deals with images and impressions. 8-15 Attention Nonfocused Attention Subliminal Stimuli A message presented so fast, softly or masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it is call a subliminal stimulus. stimulus A subliminal ad "hides" key persuasive information within the ad by making it so weak that it is difficult or impossible for someone to physically detect. Subliminal advertising has been the focus of intense study and public concern. 8-16 ...
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