07_Strayer_990-1003_and_Ultranationalism - Ultranationalism...

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Ultranationalism Reading:Mussolini’s Italy:-Local authority replaced with supporters of fascism-Press is shut down-Rigged elections-People were killed or exiled for opposition to Mussolini-Economywas under state control, but instead of having communism, he kept capitalism-It was under control of businessmen and fascist supporters-Economy grows but workers are mad because they cannot strike and have low wages-The individual is no longer important, they are just a ruthless fighter for the country-Women had no purpose other than reproducing-Machines and women were the “main causes of unemployment”-Women were told to give their gold to the treasury in exchange for iron-The childrenwere indoctrinated to march in military rallies and obey strict disciplineFascism:-Fascism has no set of ideals but it is now used to describe an authoritarian govt that is not communist-Rooted in extreme nationalism-According to Mussolini, everything is seen as in relation to the State-Very anti-democratic-Social darwinism + warfare were main ideas, so expansionwas key-Very opposed to communism: supported by businessmen rather than working class-Three main totalitarian states: Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini-Main characteristics:-Single party-State economic control-state terrorism-Censorship-Schools and media spread propaganda-All respect to supreme rulerMussolini set the groundworkpeople were appealed to fascism because it promised a strong, stable govt and ended political feuding among partiesMussolini was confident and said the Mediterranean Sea would be a Roman lake once againinternational press liked Mussolini until his expansionist campaigns beganThe Third Reichdisloyal Nazis were killed, civil rights were disbanded, and German communists were stoppedHitler called his govt the Third “Reich,” or empire (the first was the HRE and the second was Bismarck’s Germany)Hitler wanted to unite Germany and Austria in his attempts to conquer the world
SS officers facilitated everything and the Gestapo would kill oppositionthe German were happy that Hitler ended unemploymentlarge public works projects temporarily put people out of unemploymentthe violation of the Versailles Treaty by manufacturing guns was also what stopped unemployment (new markets and new jobs)large companies were under govt control and businessmen were given long outdoor vacations thatalso put them in shape for warthe children were indoctrinated with racist ideasvery ethnocentricthe Hitler Youth prepared for war and marched at paradesHitler did not want women in factories but eventually they worked in factories due to a higher demand for laborwomen were rewarded for having many babies, but were dismissed from high jobsPurging German Culture:Nazis denounced modern art and encouraged old ideas because modern art was “dirtied with Jewish influences”textbooks were rewritten in order to not teach accurately, but emphasize the pastAll Quiet on the Western Frontwas burnedHitler thought Christianity was a weak institution. Catholic sects were ended and a single

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