US Imperialism Reading Notes - Aditya Acharya Purple Class...

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Aditya AcharyaPurple ClassUS ImperialismThe United States-It was America’s “manifest destiny” to expand at the expense of others-US gains Washington, Oregon, Maine, and Minnesota from Canada-Indian Removal Act pushes all Native Americans from Midwest and Southeast to Oklahoma-By end of 19th century, 50% of native americans dead, many from trail of tears-America defeats Mexico and gets New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, etc-US takes over Hawaii after immigration to the islands increases and America dominates economic activity there-Hawaiian monarchy overthrown in 1893 and annexed in 1898-US defeats Spain and gets Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Philippines, and Cuba becomes a US protectoratePart One: From Colonialism to Statehood-Caribbean and Central America involved in trade due to commercial needs of bananas, coffee, and sugar. US builds Panama Canal in early 1900s.-Caribbean and Central America had been the first places conquered by Spanish. Spanish rule of Central American nations ends in 1823, and Panama breaks loose of Columbia in 1903-Other European powers had controlled Caribbean islands and profited from the sugar cane-Only Mexico had a unifying force. The others didn’t, and were therefore vulnerable-Believers of manifest destiny thought that ideas of self-government were destined to sweep the continent, so America fought in the Mexican-American War in 1848 and won the southwest and Texas. 12 of 52 senators opposed the treaty and wanted to annex all of Mexico-Before Civil War, South wanted to annex Nicaragua and Cuba to be stronger against North, and President Franklin Pierce said he would even use force to annex Cuba (Ostend Manifesto)-After Civil War, America became suspicious of Europe due to its colonial ambitions-The Monroe Doctrine (1823) was a warning to Europe to stay out of America. Britain most supported it until it had its own territories in Central America-America hates Spain the most due to thoughts that the Spanish monarchy was corrupt-Cuba tried to overthrow Spanish rule in 1895 in a revolt led by Jose Martí. Spanish counteracted with 200,000 men that attacked villages and burned crops-America heard of the violence in Cuba, and when a US battleship exploded in Havana, US declares war in 1898. McKinley wanted to annex Cuba but Congress wanted to grant it rights of self-government-America wins Spanish-American War after 4 months and gains Cuba. Cuban nationalists are infuriated because they can’t achieve independence, but America establishes roads, telegraphs, sanitation, etc-Only 5% of Cuba had voting rights but they all wanted independence, which opposed the US’s economic and diplomatic interests in Cuba
-Platt Amendment: US would acknowledge the independence of Cuba if US could oversee the economy, veto international actions, and intervene to protect “life, property, and liberty.” US would also build military bases in Cuba. Cubans were angry but the amendment passed in Cuba by one vote-

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