04_Indian_Nationalism - Anti-Colonialism in India and Southeast Asia Although a lot of India was divided due to education religion and the caste system

04_Indian_Nationalism - Anti-Colonialism in India and...

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Anti-Colonialism in India and Southeast Asia: - Although a lot of India was divided due to education, religion, and the caste system , almost all Indians agreed that they should gain independence from British rule - British responded with minor concessions but mostly tried to delay rebellion - Vietnam and the Dutch East Indies also experienced a surge of nationalism because anticolonial movements would be met with violent force from colonial authority - Reasons for higher level of nationalism: - Hinduism in India, Buddhism in Burma, and Islam in Southeast Asia - all of which reminded south Asians of their differences from the Western world - The rise of Japan - showed Asian countries that they had the potential for success - Damage of WWI - Doubted superiority of Europeans - Spread of Western education and political ideas - Discrepancy between promises of colonial authority and the different strategies of nation- building that are actually practiced - Main nationalist leaders: - Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi : attracts Indian nationalists and makes the nationalist movement a mass movement (mainly the poor and middle class) - Jawaharlal Nehru: led Indian Congress Party in the 30’s and 40’s - WWII is the catalyst for ideas about the independence of nations, but founding ideas are made by leaders before the war Gandhi’s Vision for India: “Indian Home Rule” - Born in 1869 - Grew up with strict Hindu religious practices - Studied law in England and moved to South Africa to handle law for the large Indian population there (1893) - Found it hard to change many cases where Indians would be indentured servants of white people, and he comes up with the idea of “ satyagraha ” (soul force) which focuses on the use of non-violence and the acceptance of punishment to reach the hearts of the British - “Indian Home Rule” written in 1908 in response to Indian nationalists in England who saw the solution in violence - Explains the idea of nonresistance and his doubts for the modernization of society Indian Home Rule: Chapter 6: Civilization - “Civilization” makes bodily welfare the goal for the people - Living in better built houses - Carrying guns rather than spears - Now, those who wear more clothing are seen to come out of “savagery” and into civilization - Eventually, men will have everything with the push of a button because machines will do
everything - Bodily strength used to be important, but now the man that shoots thousands from behind a machine gun becomes the most “civilized” - People used to be literal slaves, and now they are enslaved by the temptation of money = bad - “Test of civilization”: increased diseases, and increased frequency of meals - Labor is becoming cheaper for people like mailmen, and their lives get worse - Civilization takes no note of religion or morality - It makes people unhappy, such as women who rigorously labor for the wealth of others - Civilization will one day end up destroying itself due to its flaws Chapter 10: The Condition of India - The Muslims of India do not threaten the country, they simply merge in -

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