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Oil&Gas_Lecture - Hydrocarbons have seeped up a...

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Hydrocarbons have seeped up a fault and then evaporated, leaving stained rock in this outcrop on the Santa Barbara Channel, California.
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The North American pioneer oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania, drilled in 1859 by Col. Drake
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A “thicket” of oil rigs in Long Beach, California in the early part of the 20th Century, before the days of regulation of drilling and pumping activity
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A rig, drilling for oil or gas
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“Christmas Trees”—brightly lit rigs—are a common sight in the Texas night time landscape.
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Nowadays, most drilling occurs offshore in anything from shallow to very deep water.
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The simplest hydrocarbon molecule is methane, the chief ingredient of natural gas. Methane has a single carbon atom in the “chain.”
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Rivers feed sediment into the Gulf of Mexico, which is an example of a sedimentary basin.
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This false-color image of the Mississippi River delta shows a plume of muddy fresh water being delivered into the Gulf of Mexico. Mixing of the plume with salt water causes the mud to precipitate immediately offshore.
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In this sandstone, the pore spaces among well-rounded sand grains are filled with oil.
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Not all of the oil can be extracted by primary recovery; a film clings to each grain. Methods of secondary recovery are devised to obtain some of this remaining oil.
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A porous sandstone reservoir rock in Mexico was impregnated with epoxy resin.
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