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Seismic_Lecture - Seismic waves making seismic waves...

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Unformatted text preview: Seismic waves making seismic waves: elastic rebound wave fronts and ray paths body (P and S) waves surface (L) waves: Love and Rayleigh Earthquake propagation example San Francisco, 1906 Seismometers and seismograms Factors that govern seismic wave speed Time-distance graph Chapter 16: Seismicity Next lecture: Chapter 16 A 1999 earthquake in Taiwan created an “instant” waterfall, and severely damaged the dam in the distance. Offsetting motion on the fault was chiefly in a vertical direction. Motion on a fault in southern California was chiefly in a horizontal direction Consider straight fence rows built across an active fault. 1. The initial condition. 2. Creeping offsetting motion on the two sides causes the fences to be distorted adjacent to the fault. The fences bend, but do not break. 3. The fault ruptures locally and fence rows “snap back” to becoming straight. For a moment there is intense compression (green area) between a straight fence and a distorted fence. Offset on the fault “unzips” toward the north and toward the south. 4. Following the earthquake, the fence rows are straight again but offset. 1 2 3 4 Animation Seismic waves making seismic waves; elastic rebound wave fronts and ray paths body (P and S) waves surface (L) waves: Love and Rayleigh Earthquake propagation example San Francisco, 1906 Seismometers and seismograms Factors that govern seismic wave speed Time-distance graph Chapter 16: Seismicity Next lecture: Chapter 16 Ripples— wavefronts —in a pond are expanding concentric circles. A ray path shows the direction that an infinitesimally small “packet” of wave energy travels. Wavefronts and ray paths are mutually perpendicular. Seismic waves making seismic waves; elastic rebound...
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Seismic_Lecture - Seismic waves making seismic waves...

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