#2 - Apoten(alEssayQues(onforyour firstexam:...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Apoten(alEssayQues(onforyour firstexam: Whyisbipedalismsoimportantinthe evolu(onaryhistoryofourspecies?Describethe anatomicalchangesassociatedwiththeevolu(on ofbipedalisminhominids.Discussthecorrela(on betweentheprogressiveincreaseinbrainsizeand culturalcomplexityaCertheadventofbipedalism forthehominidtaxadiscussedinlecture.Besure toincludeatleastageneralchronologyforthe homindtaxadiscussedinyouranswer. SyllabusCorrec(on -Labor Day is Monday Sept. 7 (No Class) -We will have class on Monday August 31 Whatisculture?AssignmentDueFriSept.4 Inthisassignmentyouaretoprovideadefini(on ofculture,andthenapplythatdefini(ontoa culturalphenomenonthatyouarefamiliarwith. Notelinktodefsofcultureonpage11ofsyllabus andevalua(oncriteriahandout. Humankind'sextrasoma(cmeansofadapta(on, thevalues,beliefsandidealsofasociety,learned behavior. Emergence of Homo sapiens Sahelanthropustchadensis Ageca.6.5mya Chad,Africa Cranialcapacityof340cc Posi(onofforamenmagnum suggestbipedalism? Possiblehumanapeancestor No tools Age6mya Kenya Angleoffemurhead suggestsbipedalism mayormaynotbe hominid Notools Orrorintugenensis ("MilleniumMan") Ardipithecus ramidus! 4.4 mya! Bipedal based on position of foramen magnum! Cranial capacity ca. 350 cc. ! No tools found! The Australopithecines General characteristics 4.2-1.4 mya jaws and teeth large Bipedal and partly arboreal Sexual dimorphism Small brain, cranial capacity 350-400 cc No tools, that we have found 2 groups - Gracile: smaller teeth and skull bone structure - Robust: large molars and skull bone structure, sagittal crest A. africanus Homo Habilis ("handy man") General characteristics Age 2.3- 1.5 mya larger brain than Australopithecines, ca. 600 cc. Canines, molars and premolars smaller Biped and partially arboreal Sexual dimorphism Behavior - Oldowan tools -carnivores and herbivores -Meat -the brain food Trends in the evolution of Homo (after H. habilis) Rapid increase in brain size. Why? Reduction of face, teeth, and jaws. From what? Homo erectus Characteristics -First to leave Africa -1.8 mya -200,000 yrs ago -larger brain, ca. 1000 cc. -little sexual dimorphism Behavior -Acheulian handaxe -adaptation to new environments -family groups? -fire Nariokatome boy Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Characteristics! "-200,000-30,000 yrs ago! "-adapted to cold ! "-large brain, 1500 cc. but may have been organized differently than ours! Behavior! "-more complex tools, (mousterian)! "-buried dead, care of wounded! "-a little art! "-position of hyoid suggest speech! "-not as efficient in resource procurement as modern humans! Homo sapiens sapiens (Us!) Characteristics! "-ca. 150,000 yrs ago- present! "-large brain, ca. 1300 cc.! "-small teeth! "-tall, slender stature! Behavior! "-art explosion, complex upper paleolithic tools! "-language- spoken and written! "-large social networks! "-includes all modern behavior! UpperPaleolithicCaveArt ca.40,000to10,000B.P. The Spread of Homo sapiens sapiens: Multiregional vs. Out of Africa Hypothesis Nowabriefvideosegment OurEvolu(onaryTree? Apoten(alEssayQues(onforyour firstexam: Whyisbipedalismsoimportantinthe evolu(onaryhistoryofourspecies?Describethe anatomicalchangesassociatedwiththeevolu(on ofbipedalisminhominids.Discussthecorrela(on betweentheprogressiveincreaseinbrainsizeand culturalcomplexityaCertheadventofbipedalism forthehominidtaxadiscussedinlecture.Besure toincludeatleastageneralchronologyforthe homindtaxadiscussedinyouranswer. Letsdefinesomekeyterms: PrehistoryThat(mebeforewri[enrecords, usuallyreferstothestudyofpreliterate socie(es. HistoryTheStudyofthePast,1)whendealing withhumansocie(esfocusesitisthe(me periodwhenwri[enrecordsareavailable;2)a chronologicalrecordofevents,atrea(se discussingsystema(callyrelatednatural phenomenon. ArchaeologyThescien(ficstudyofthe materialremainsofpasthumanlifeways. Biologicalanthropology,orphysical anthropologyisabranchofanthropologythat studiesthemechanismsofbiologicalevolu(on, gene(cinheritance,humanadaptabilityand varia(on,primatology,primatemorphology, andthefossilrecordofhumans. PaleontologyAsciencedealingwiththelifeof pastgeologicalperiodsasknownfromfossil remains. PleistoceneAbout1.8toca.12kcharacterizedbya seriesofglacia(ons HoloceneAbout12k,characterizedbyadventofmore orlessmodernclimate ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online