#3 - Apoten(alEssayQues(onforyour firstexam:

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Unformatted text preview: Apoten(alEssayQues(onforyour firstexam: Whyisbipedalismsoimportantintheevolu(onary historyofourspecies?Describetheanatomical changesassociatedwiththeevolu(onofbipedalism inhominids.Discussthecorrela(onbetweenthe progressiveincreaseinbrainsizeandcultural complexityaCertheadventofbipedalismforthe hominidtaxadiscussedinlecture.Besuretoinclude atleastageneralchronologyhominidtaxadiscussed inyouranswer. Our Hominid Evolutionary Tree? WhatisCulture?AssignmentDueFri.Sept.4 Inthisassignmentyouaretoprovidea defini(onofculture,andthenapplythat defini(ontoaculturalphenomenonthatyou arefamiliarwith. Notelinktodefsofcultureonpage11of syllabusandlookcloselyattheevalua(on criteriahandout. Humankind'sextrasoma(cmeansof adapta(on,thevalues,beliefsandidealsofa society,learnedbehavior,becomesmore complexover(me. TheOracleShrineatDelphi Acommentfromlastsemester's teachingevalua(ons: oCen.Peoplearepayinganobscene amountofmoneytobehere.Whenyou makeahabitofleUngoutclassearly peoplejustdon'tgettheirmoney'sworth! Ithinkyouarejustalazyinstructor!" "Youletyourstudentsoutearlyfartoo Anoteondates: B.C.(beforeChrist)/A.D.(annodomini,in theyearofourlord) B.C.E./C.E.(beforecommonera/common era)thisiswhatyourbookuses B.P.beforepresent,usuallybasedon radiocarbonda(ngofc14 Letsdefinesomekeyterms: PrehistoryThat(mebeforewri^enrecords, usuallyreferstothestudyofpreliterate socie(es. History1)achronologicalrecordofhistoryof events,atrea(sediscussingsytema(cally relatednaturalphenomenon;2)whendealing withhumansoci(es,itisthe(meperiod whenwri^enrecordsareavailable. ArchaeologyThescien(ficstudyofthematerial remainsofpasthumanlifeways. BiologicalAnthropology,orphysical anthropologyisabranchofanthropologythat studiesthemechanismsofbiologicalevolu(on, gene(cinheritance,humanadaptabilityand varia(on,primatology,primatemorphology,and thefossilrecordofhumanevolu(on. PaleontologyAsciencedealingwiththelifeof pastgeologicalperiodsasknownfromfossil remains. TheGreatSpiralofTime PleistoceneAbout1.7myatoca.10kcharacterized byaseriesofglacia(ons HoloceneAbout10k,characterizedbyadventof moreorlessmodernclimate THENEOLITHICREVOLUTIONAND THEORIGINSOFCIVILIZATION PaleolithicOldStoneAge,ca.2.3millionto 12,000yearsago,dividedintoUpper,Middle, and,LowerPeriods MesolithicMiddleStoneAge,ca.11,000to 7,000yearsagointheNearEast,associated withgradualtransi(onfromafoodgathering andhun(ngeconomytoafoodproducingone (e.g.NatufianCultureintheLevant),referred toasArchaicPeriodinNorthAmerica HumanSubsistencePa^erns: Hunting and Gathering Horticulture Pastoralism Sedentary Agriculture hunter-gathers live very lightly on the land Pastoral nomads on the move, east Africa LevelsofSociopoli(calComplexity Band Tribe Chiefdom State Empire Civilization (but this refers to a different aspect of complexity) a large number of people share a variety of common elements Neolithic Revolution--New Stone Age, Transition to Agriculture Location of the first agricultural communities First in the Levant Region ca. 9 to 8,000 B.C. and later in the Upper Tigris and Euphrates Basins ca. 7,000 B.C. The Levant Region of the Fertile Crescent--Center of the original range of wild wheat and barley location of first plant domestication Domestication: an evolutionary process whereby humans modify intentionally or unintentionally the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are dependent on human assistance for survival. Desirable characteristics in plants might include: increased size of edible parts reduction of natural seed dispersal (e.g., fragile stems of wild cereals) reduction or loss of protective devices such as husks, spines, and toxins largeSeedsandabri^lerachisareindicators ofdomes(catedwheat,rye,andbarley Agriculture is sustained only by intense, strenuous labor--"drudgery." Growing cereals is very labor-intensive and requires elaborate cultural techniques and social discipline. Grain has to be processed to become edible. SomeTheoriesfortheOriginsof Agriculture: Popula(onHypothesis ClimateChange/OasisHypothesis Conflict/Compe((onHypothesis Combina(onofFactors AnimalDomes(ca(on TheCavy:WildAncestoroftheGuineaPig NeolithicFarmingVillagesinthe NearEast Pottery-making appears with sedentism. Economic Specializations Emerge Within Agricultural Communities Agriculture drove population growth, however for most people health declined The chief prerequisite for civilization is dependable agricultural surpluses--this is a key point Whatis"Civiliza(on"? Civis:La(nforinhabitantofa city Civitas:La(nforthe communityinwhichyoulive Civiliza(onsusuallyhave: AnUrbanFocus Poli(calandMilitary Ins(tu(ons Asocialstructurebasedon economicpower CraCSpecializa(onand MaterialComplexity ReligiousStructure Wri(ng Architecturaland Intellectualac(vity Whydociviliza(onsarisein someareasbutnotothers? HydraulicTheory TradeNetworks Elites Emerge and Become Ruling Classes Urban life appears and is sustained by economic specialization. Some elites were priests, who mediated between the community and the gods. With state organization, elites or rulers typically portray themselves as sacred or even divine figures. Civilization meant (and still means) organized warfare and military specialists The new social organization also allows planning and deliberate concentrations of resources. One of the by-products of increasing social complexity and warfare is slavery. PopQuiz#1 DefinetheNeolithicRevolu(on asifitwereaniden(fica(on ques(ononyourfirstexam. Remember--Who/What, When,Where,andWhy? AncientMesopotamia ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2009 for the course GENED 110 taught by Professor Chan during the Spring '06 term at Washington State University .

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