Lecture2_MCDB_20

Lecture2_MCDB_20 - Lecture 2 -BioMolecules &...

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Lecture 2 -BioMolecules & BioMacromolecules -Cell theory (prokaryotes/eukaryotes) -Plasmamembrane structure/function -Cell-cell interactions -Structure/function of eukaryotic cells Four Types of Macromolecules ! Carbohydrates ! Lipids ! Proteins ! Nucleic acids ! Describe carbohydrates—their structure and function. ! Describe lipids—their structure and function. ! Describe proteins—their structure and function. ! Describe nucleic acids—their structure and function. Learning Objectives Carbohydrates are macro-molecules that function as fuel. Health topics of the year ! Low-carb diet? ! Hi-carb diet? ! “Carbo-loading”? ! Fiber intake? What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates ! C, H, and O ! Primary fuel for organisms ! Cell structure Carbohydrates: Simple Sugars • Sugars are carbohydrate monomers • Dehydration synthesis: combine sugars to form POLYMERS Carbohydrates: Polymers Cellulose: Structure Starch: Energy storage Energy is in the chemical bonds!
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Simple sugars are the most effective source of energy. ! Monosaccharides ! 3 ! 7 carbon atoms ! Glucose and fructose Glucose ! Most carbohydrates— ultimately converted into glucose ! Blood sugar What is “carbo-loading”? Chemical Fuel Preliminary Processing Complex carbohydrates are time- released packets of energy. ! More than 1 sugar (monosaccharide) unit ! Disaccharides sucrose lactose ! Polysaccharides starch cellulose
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Starch ! > 100’s of glucose molecules joined together ! Barley, wheat, rye, corn, and rice ! Glycogen—“animal starch” Not all carbohydrates are digestible. ! Chitin ! Cellulose Fiber ! “Roughage” ! Colon cancer prevention/reduction ! Termites ecological role Why does a salad dressing made with vinegar and oil separate into two layers shortly after you shake it? ! Hydrophobic oil ! Hydrophilic vinegar Lipids are macromolecules with several functions, including energy storage. Lipids: Fatty Acids • Long hydrocarbon chains – Very hydrophobic • Used for energy storage – Very high energy – Long-term storage
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Fats are tasty molecules too plentiful in our diets. ! Triglycerides: – Hydrophilic “head” region: Glycerol – Hydrophobic “tail” region: Fatty acid ! Called “Amphiphiles” Fat molecules contain much more stored energy than carbohydrate molecules. Saturated and Unsaturated Fats ! # of bonds in the hydrocarbon chain in a fatty acid ! Health considerations ! Many snack foods contain “partially hydrogenated” vegetable oils. ! Why might it be desirable to add hydrogen atoms to a vegetable oil? What are trans fats ? ! Olestra is a recently developed “fake fat” chemical that gives foods the taste of fat, without adding the calories of fats. ! What chemical structure might make this
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2009 for the course MCDB 20 taught by Professor Cooper during the Summer '08 term at UCSB.

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Lecture2_MCDB_20 - Lecture 2 -BioMolecules &...

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