Lecture4_MCDB_20.pdf

Lecture4_MCDB_20.pdf - Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and...

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Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and Biotechnology What is the code and how is it harnessed? Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community Colege Learning Objectives ! Describe what DNA is and what it does. ! Explain the process of gene expression and the collaboration of nature and nurture. ! Explain the causes and effects of damage to the genetic code. ! Describe biotechnology and its implications for human health. ! Discuss biotechnology in agriculture. ! Discuss biotechnology today and tomorrow. Two Important Features of DNA (1) DNA contains the instructions on how to create a body and control its growth and development. (2) The instructions encoded in the DNA molecule are passed down from parent to offspring. DNA is a molecule that all living organisms carry in every cell in their body. DNA Structure DNA contains only 4 kinds of nucleotides , the building blocks of nucleic acid. A nucleotide consists of a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of the following bases: adenine guanine thymine cytosine Nucleotides Have Three Components DNA “Double Helix” Nucleic acids and nucleotides DNA structure movie Take-home message 5.2 ! DNA is a nucleic acid, a macromolecule that stores information. ! It consists of individual units called nucleotides: a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base. ! DNA’s structure resembles a twisted ladder, with the sugar and phosphate groups serving as the backbones of the molecule and base pairs serving as the rungs. Exons = coding regions encode proteins Introns = non-coding regions spliced out in RNA Genes = exons + introns Many genes = chromosome Genes and chromosomes Gene = A sequence of bases in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a protein
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DNA = universal language The number of chromosomes varies from species to species. ! Corn has 10 unique chromosomes (10 pairs) ! Fruit flies have only four. ! Dogs and chickens have 39 different chromosomes. ! Goldfish have 47 chromosomes. ! Individuals in each of these species inherit one copy of each chromosome from each parent. Take-home message 5.3
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Lecture4_MCDB_20.pdf - Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, and...

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