Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - WEEK 1 Lecture#2 Chapter 3...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
WEEK 1 Lecture #2 Chapter 3 Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates a. Macromolecules—Function: Fuel and Cell Structure i. Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen ii. Energy is stored in the Carbon-Hydrogen Bond b. Monosaccharide—simples carbohydrates i. When broken down, product is no longer a carb 1. i.e. Simple sugars like glucose and fructose ii. Carbohydrate monomers can become polymers through dehydration synthesis , joining with other sugars 1. Polymers function as cellulose or starch for structure and energy storage 2. Polymers can be broken down by hydrolysis c. Polysaccharides—contain more than 1 sugar unit building block i. Often called complex carbohydrates 1. i.e. Disaccharides or Polysaccharides ii. Polysaccharides must undergo processing for energy to be released iii. Long term energy release d. Indigestible Carbohydrates i. Chitin—outside layer of crustaceans ii. Cellulose—forms plant structure 1. Although these are indigestible to humans, still important in our diet to clear out our intestine track—roughage 2. Lipids a. Macromolecules—Function: long term energy storage i. More Carbon-Hydrogen bonds resulting in greater energy storage ii. Insoluble in H20 because of polar properties b. Fats i. All fats have 2 distinctive parts 1. Hydrophilic Head 2. Hydrophobic Tail ii. Saturated Fat—Each carbon atom is bonded with the maximum 2 hydrogen atoms (potential health hazards) iii. Unsaturated Fat—some carbons are bonded with only one hydrogen iv. Partially Hydrogenated—artificially add hydrogen atomes to unsaturated fat 1. Also known as ‘Trans’ fat b v. Fake Fat—Products like Olestra stimulates the same taste buds as fat, but are indigestible—potential to cause stomach cramping c. Soap i. Often a fatty acid salt
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
1. Dissolves grease because the hydrophobic head bonds with the hydrophobic causing the grease to become hydrophilic and able to be washed away with water d. Phospholipids i. Forms the membranes that enclose a cell—also known as the cell membrane by linking 2 fatty acids together e. Sterols i. Cholesterol serves an important role in regulating hormones. Over 90% is produced naturally in our body. ii. There is also risk when too much cholesterol is in our body as it can thicken blood vessel walls 3. Proteins a. Macromolecules—Function: Chief Building blocks of the physical structure i. Made up of 20 amino acids ii. Proteins also serve as structural, protective, regulatory, contractive, and transport roles iii. Also are Enzymes iv. Impetrative to growth, repair, replacement b. Shape i. 1 st or Primary: ‘The Letters’--amino acids covalently link via a peptide bond ii. 2 nd or Secondary: “The Phrases”—hydrogen bonds attach forming zigzag or corkscrew structures iii. 3 rd or Tertiary: ‘The Sentences’—folds on itself from additional hydrogen bonding of sulfur-sulfur bonds iv. 4 th or Quaternary: 2 or more peptide chains bonded together v. Must remain in particular shape to maintain function—if not,
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/14/2009 for the course MCDB 20 taught by Professor Cooper during the Summer '08 term at UCSB.

Page1 / 28

Final Study Guide - WEEK 1 Lecture#2 Chapter 3...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online