MCDB 20—Learning Objectives

MCDB 20—Learning Objectives - MCDB...

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MCDB 20—Learning Objectives Learning Objectives Chapter 3—Cells Describe what a cell is and the two general types of cells. Cell—The smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all the necessary functions of life, including reproducing itself. All living organisms are made up of one or more cells, and cells arise from other pre-existing cells. Corollary to cell theory: viruses are small than cells, therefore, viruses are not living organisms 1. Eukaryotic Cell a. Contains a central control structure called a nucleus which contains the cells DNA and also has compartments or “organelles” with specialized functions i. Animal Cell contains Centriole—not found in plant cells ii. Plant cells contain chloroplast and cell walls b. Endosymbiosis theory—explains the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes: chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals i. Very similar in structure and size—can also be explained through invagination c. Can be single celled or multicellular organisms d. 2.Prokaryotic Cell a. Does not have a nucleus, its DNA simply resides in the middle of the cell b. One celled organisms, contain four universal structures i. Plasma membrane—encompasses the cell ii. Cytoplasm—jelly like fluid that fills the inside of the cell iii. Ribosome—granular bodies where proteins are made iv. Circular loops or linear strands of DNA c. Sometimes include: i. Cell wall ii. Pili—hair like projections that help cells attach to other surfaces iii. Flagellum—whip like projection that aids in cellular movement d. Common prokaryotes include bacteria and archae Describe the structure and functions of cell membranes. “plasma membrane=fluid mosaic” 1. Every cell if a living organism is enclosed by a plasma membrane which holds the contents of the cell in place, and regulates what enters and leaves the cell
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2.Plasma membranes are built of phospholipid bilayers a. Hydrophilic heads extends towards the intracellular and extracellular regions b. Hydrophobic tails are directed away from watery fluids towards themselves 3.Molecules embedded in the plasma membrane a. Transmembrane Proteins—penetrate right through the lipid bilayers from one side to the other i. Recognition Proteins—provide a fingerprint for the cell, so it can be recognized by other cells 1.
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