October 7 lecture 11 v7 - Outline Lecture 11 Review...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline Lecture 11 Review lifecycle of Neurotransmitters Notice what is unique for each transmitter Notice what is common for each transmitter Introduction to Glutamate Receptors AMPA Receptors NMDA Receptors Introduction to Memory and Long-Term Potentiation as a cellular model of memory. ACh Uptake and Termination of Signal Neurotransmitter is removed from the cleft by two mechanisms i) transmitter is destroyed by an enzyme such as acetylcholine esterase in the cleft! Catecholamine Neurotransmitters Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine All start with the precursor Tyrosine. In a succession of metabolic steps, each controlled by a different enzyme results in a different NT. Specificity is determined by the enzymes that are expressed in a particular neuron. Noradrenergic Neurons The enzyme dopamine- -hydroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to Norepinephrine. This conversion occurs within the synaptic vesicles ! Inactivation of catecholamines: 1.Uptake by transporters 2.Degradation in presynaptic terminal Enzymes involved in catecholamine Breakdown are cytosolic catechol o- Methyltransferase (COMT) and Mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO). MAO inhibitors act as dopaminergic agonist, and have been used to treat depression. MAO inhibitors also increase NE and Serotonin (5HT) in the brain . These drugs rarely used anymore due to their side effects. Now specific inhibitors of the NT transporters are used to treat depression (prozac which blocks 5HT uptake). Biosynthesis of Glutamate Inactivation: Glutamate is taken up by transporters In the presynaptic terminal and or by recycling by glia. No enzymatic inactivation! Biosynthesis of GABA *** Glutamate the major excitatory Neurotransmitter is a precursor to the major inhibitory transmitter!!! *** Specificity comes from the neuron expressing the GAD enzyme that converts Glutamate into GABA!!! Signal Transduction at the Synapse Presynaptic Nerve terminal Neurotransmitter Postsynaptic cell Intracellular signal transduction Two Super Families of Neurotransmitter Receptors Iontropic receptors Metabotropic receptors Neurotransmitter Binds to an Ionotropic Receptor Excitatory Ionotropic Receptors Inhibitory Depending on the ion conducted, the current can be depolarizing Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) Inhibitory Ionotropic Receptors Inhibitory or Hyperpolarizing Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) Glutamate Receptors Glutamate Receptors are nonselective cation channels Glutamate Receptors Nonselective Cation Channels Glutamate receptors conduct Na + and K +...
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October 7 lecture 11 v7 - Outline Lecture 11 Review...

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