chapter9_LewisTheory

chapter9_LewisTheory - CHAPTER 9 Chemical Bonding I...

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CHAPTER 9 Chemical Bonding I Lewis Theory 1 Introduction Chemical Bonds : Attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds. 2 Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons etallic 3 Metallic Metal atoms bonded to each other due to electron pooling Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms he electrons involved in bonding are The electrons involved in bonding are usually those in the outermost shell. They are called valence electrons . Lewis dot formulas are a convenient bookkeeping method for tracking valence 4 electrons.
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Lewis Dot Formulas of Atoms In different book, there might be two slightly , gg y different Lewis structures for some atoms. Elements in the same group have the same # of valence electrons. 5 Elements in the same group have the same Lewis dot structures. Lewis Theory the basis of Lewis Theory is that there are certain electron arrangements in the atom that are more stable octet rule bonding occurs so atoms attain a more stable electron configuration Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 6 more stable = lower potential energy no attempt to quantify the energy as the calculation is extremely complex Ionic Bonds nic bonds re electrostatic attraction Ionic bonds are electrostatic attraction between cations and anions. Commonly, metals react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. 7 Formation of Ionic Compounds nmetal IIA etal as lid yellow silver F Li 2 nonmetal VIIA metal IA 2(g) (s) iF i 8 gas solid solid gas solid white yellow silver LiF 2 F Li 2 (s) 2(g) (s)
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Formation of Ionic Compounds s s p 1s 2s 2p Li  F     Li +  same as [He] 9 F -      same as [Ne] Formation of Ionic Compounds Li + F . .. .. . . . Li + F [ ] .. .. . . . . 10 Lattice Energy lattice energy : The energy associated with forming a crystalline lattice from gaseous ions. It is governed by Coulomb’s law: Q Q 11 E el = 1 2 d Q: charge of the ion; d : distance between the centers of two ions. Lattice Energy vs. Ion Size Metal Chloride Lattice Energy (kJ/mol) LiCl -834 NaCl -787 Cl 01 Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular Approach 12 KCl -701 CsCl -657
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Lattice Energy vs. Ion Charge the force of attraction between oppositely charged particles is directly proportional to the product of the charges
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2009 for the course CHEM 105 taught by Professor Zhao during the Summer '08 term at IUPUI.

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chapter9_LewisTheory - CHAPTER 9 Chemical Bonding I...

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