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Chapter5_Gases

Chapter5_Gases - How many mL of 0.500 M NaOH are required...

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How many mL of 0.500 M NaOH are required to completely react with 50.0 mL solution of A. 100. mL B. 200. mL C. 300. mL D. 50.0 mL 1

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Sample Problem Solving Limiting-Reactant Problems for Reactions in Solution PROBLEM: Sodium sulfide can be used to remove mercury from the waste. In a laboratory, 0.050L of 0.010M mercury(II) nitrate reacts with 0.020L of 0.10M sodium sulfide. How many grams of mercury(II) sulfide will form? 2
SOLUTION: Sample Problem Solving Limiting-Reactant Problems for Reactions in Solution L of Na 2 S mol Na 2 S mol HgS multiply by M mol ratio L of Hg(NO 3 ) 2 mol Hg(NO 3 ) 2 mol HgS multiply by M mol ratio Hg(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + Na 2 S( aq ) HgS( s ) + 2NaNO 3 ( aq ) 0.050L Hg(NO 3 ) 2 x 0.010 mol/L x 1mol HgS 1mol Hg(NO 3 ) 2 0.020L Hg(NO 3 ) 2 x 0. 10 mol/L x 1mol HgS 1mol Na 2 S = 5.0x10 -4 mol HgS = 2.0x10 -3 mol HgS Hg(NO 3 ) 2 is the limiting reagent. 5.0x10 -4 mol HgS 232.7g HgS 1 mol HgS = 0.12g HgS 3

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4 CHAPTER 5 GASES
5 Why do we study gases? Many gaseous substances are essential to our survival and well-being. The behaviors of gases are relatively simple at molecular level. It provides the basis to study more complicated states, such as liquids and solids.

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6 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases The density of gases is much less than that of solids or liquids. Densities (g/mL) Solid Liquid Gas H 2 O 0.917 0.998 0.000588 CCl 4 1.70 1.59 0.00503  Gas molecules must be very far apart compared to  liquids and solids.
7 Properties of Gases Variables to describe a gas sample: P V T n

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8 Pressure and Temperature at Molecular Level Pressure is related to the frequency of collision of gas molecules with the surface. Temperature is related to the average speed of gas molecules.
9 Pressure Pressure is force per unit area. lb/in 2 (psi) N/m 2 (pascal) mmHg or torr atm Standard pressure 760 mm Hg 760 torr 1 atm 1.01325x10 5 Pa Hg density = 13.6 g/mL

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10 Boyle’s Law the inverse relationship between volume and pressure when temperature and the amount of gas remain constant. V 1/P For the same sample of gas at constant T , P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 constant PV =
11 Boyle’s Law P in Increase surface with molecules gas of collision frequent More decreased, is V if T, constant At

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12 A gas initially at 2.0 atm is in an 10.0 L adjustable volume container. If the pressure is decreased to 0.50 atm while temperature stays the same, what is the new volume? A. 40. L B. 20. L C. 10. L D. 5.0 L
Charles’ Law The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature at constant pressure and amount of gas. . Kelvin scale must be used. K =

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Chapter5_Gases - How many mL of 0.500 M NaOH are required...

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