Chapter4.2_ChemRxn

Chapter4.2_ChemRxn - Chapter 4, Part 2 Major Classes of...

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Chapter 4, Part 2 Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 1 Ionic Compounds in Water • Soluble ionic compounds – NaCl in water • Insoluble ionic compounds –CaCO 3 in water Water is a polar molecule. 2 When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the solid and solvates them. This process is called dissociation . 3 When an ionic compound dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the solid and solvates them. This process called issociation is called dissociation. ) H ) ) (OH) mol _____ mol _____ mol 0.20 (aq) Br + (aq) K (s) KBr - - + 4 M ____ M _____ M 0.15 (aq) OH 2 + (aq) Ba (s) Ba(OH) + 2 2
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5 ** This table is from a different book. 6 ** This table is from a different book. Example : Predict whether the following compounds are soluble or insoluble in water. 1) NH I2 ) SrSO 3) Cs PO ) 4 ) 4 ) 3 4 ou must memorize and be able to 7 You must memorize and be able to apply solubility rules. Covalent Compounds in Water • Insoluble covalent compounds • Soluble covalent compounds – Regular soluble covalent compounds – Strong acids – Weak acids and weak bases 8
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When most soluble covalent compounds are dissolved in water, their molecules separate from each other and mixed with water molecules. 9 • Strong acids completely dissociate into ions:     aq aq 3 100% 2 Br + O H O H HBr l H O + : hydronium ion 3 y 10 • Weak acids (or bases) partially dissociate into ions: (aq) F (aq) O H ) ( O H HF - 3 100% 2 l 11 Common Strong Acids HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid HNO 3 nitric acid O ulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid Common Weak Acids HF hydrofluoric acid O hosphoric acid 12 H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid CH 3 COOH acetic acid H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid You must memorize the formulas and the names of these acids.
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Classification of water water-soluble substances soluble substances • Nonelectrolyte resent in solution exclusively as molecules. Present in solution exclusively as molecules. – Solution does not conduct electricity. • Weak electrolyte – Partially ionizes in solution. – Solution conducts electricity poorly. t l t l t 13 • Strong electrolyte – Present in solution exclusively as ions. – Its solution conducts electricity well. 14 Classification of water water-soluble substances soluble substances • Nonelectrolytes – regular soluble covalent compounds gp • Weak electrolytes – weak acids – weak bases • Strong electrolytes oluble ionic compounds (including strong 15 – soluble ionic compounds (including strong bases) – strong acids Major Classes of Chemical Reactions • Metathesis Reaction ( double displacement ) –Precipitation reaction –Acid-base reaction (neutralization reaction) –Gas Evolution reaction • Oxidation-Reduction reaction (Redox) ombination reaction 16 –Combination reaction –Decomposition reaction –Single displacement reaction –Combustion of substances in oxygen
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Metathesis Reactions
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2009 for the course CHEM 105 taught by Professor Zhao during the Summer '08 term at IUPUI.

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Chapter4.2_ChemRxn - Chapter 4, Part 2 Major Classes of...

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