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Western Civ Class Notes (test 1)

Western Civ Class Notes (test 1) - 3 Possible Essay...

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3 Possible Essay Questions for the Exam 1. How did the European discovery of the whiter world transform European economic relationships? 2. Why the events of the 1640s were different from earlier crises of early modern state: -Obviously political, rather than religious -signal a new era (ie age of absolutism) - Change is acknowledged in key states 3. "In an essay explain the reasons why the various Protestant understandings of Christianity and the Christian life spread so rapidly in some parts of Europe between 1517, when Luther first publically protested Indulgences, and 1564, when Calvin died, ending the 1st generation of Protestant Reformers." 1003 sec. 3 Western Civilization class notes. Note-When I refer back to the textbook, I’m talking about the Western Civilization book with the CD. 8/26- INTRODUCTION Study of Western Civilization from the Reformation to the present During this period we see Europe’s political transition from -Traditional agricultural societies and/or -Imperial societies to -“Nation states” constructed in the 1750’s In 1500, Agricultural societies saw most people farming, led by small elite of warriors and knights, clergy. There were also the beginnings of Imperial society, which were aggressive, expansion oriented societies. Otherwise, they resembled agricultural societies. Fewer of these. Modern nation states were invented in the late 18 th and early 19 th century. France led the way here. This will come up later in the course. -----Imperial states---- Seek to gain human and natural resources. Are concerned with status, “Perform” and express elite values against real human and spiritual enemies.
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Carry “true religion” to unbelievers. This is the ideological component of an imperial society. Commoners have opportunities in the new imperial expansions. Ex- Castile, The aggressive Iberian state expanding into the New World during this time The Ottoman Empire-An Islamic empire based in Turkey. Aztecs and Incas- Two American empires the Castilians would topple. ------Economic changes during the period covered in the course------ -Local economies with limited market connections and long distance trade were the norm in 1500 -Formation of the “Eurocentric World System” and Atlantic Empires with Europeans winning a world Market. Begins with conquest of New World, and Portuguese discoveries of sea routes to Africa, India. -Eventually we see the emergence of global markets and a polycentric world system. --------Social changes during the period covered in the course.------ 1500- Limited life experiences and expectancy Most Europeans could expect to live to 25, maybe 30 or 35 if lucky In the 18 th century the death rate began to fall. Abundant goods began to flood market, and the possibility of a consumer society began to exist. Issues of social status arise from people of modest backgrounds being able to live better.
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