11-22, 23/06, 06/04/07
What is manufacturing?
: Two definitions are given in the text, one technological and the other economic. The
technological definition is the following: Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical
processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or
products; manufacturing also includes the joining of multiple parts to make assembled products. The
economic definition is the following: Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater
value by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations.
What are the three basic industry categories?
: The three basic industry categories are the following: (1) Primary industries, which are those that
cultivate and exploit natural resources, such as agriculture and mining; (2) secondary industries, which
convert the outputs of the primary industries into products; they include manufacturing, construction, and
power generation; and (3) tertiary industries, which constitute the service sector of the economy, which
includes banking, retail, transportation, education, givernment, and so on.
What is the difference between consumer goods and capital goods?
Consumer goods are products that are purchased directly by consumers, such as cars, personal
computers, TVs, tires, toys, and tennis rackets. Capital goods are products purchased by other companies to
produce goods and supply services. Examples include commercial aircraft, mainframe computers, machine
tools, railroad equipment, and construction machinery.
What is the difference between a processing operation and an assembly operation?
: A processing operation transforms a work material from one state of completion to a more
advanced state that is closer to the final desired part or product. It adds value by changing the geometry,
properties, or appearance of the starting material. An assembly operation joins two or more components to
create a new entity, called an assembly, subassembly, or some other term that refers to the joining process.
Name the four categories of part-shaping operations, based on the state of the starting work material.
: The four categories are (1) solidification processes, (2) particulate processing, (3) deformation
processes, and (4) material removal processes.