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Chapter 7 NOTES - Density maps are hard to draw-Boundary...

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CHEMISTRY 1 NOTES Planck's constant (Js) wavelength(m) = ---------------------- mass * volume Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to know both the exact position and exact momentum of an e-. Why? - Objects only seen by “light” with wavelength <= object size. Schrödinger equation (1926): - Treats e- as standing waves (not particles). - Developed by analogy to classical equations for the motion of a guitar string. - Called “wave mechanics” or “quantum mechanics” a) Explains the structure of all atoms and molecules b) Complicated math; important results. The solutions are energies and mathematical functions (wave functions, ) 2 = Probability of finding an e- at a point in space. 2 An e- density map plots for each point in space. Each describes a different energy level. - H-atom wavefunction ( ) = an orbital. - e- do NOT follow fixed orbits around the nucleus.
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Unformatted text preview: Density maps are hard to draw.-Boundary surfaces are used o Contain the e- 90% of the time. o Why not 100%? Each orbital ( ) includes three quantum numbers: n, l, and M l Principal quantum number, n (n=1, 2, 3 … infinite) Azimuthal quantum number, l (l = 0 to n – 1)-Defines orbital shape.-Orbitals w/ equal l (and equal n) are in the same subshell.-Code letters identify l l 0 1 2 3 4 5 …. Code s p d f g h …. Magnetic quantum number, M l (M l = -l to +l)-Defines the orientation of the orbital. Example List all sets of quantum numbers for an n = 3 e-. L = 0, or 1 or 2 if n = 3 and l = 2 (3d), M l is -2, -1, 0, 1 or 2. l = 1, (3p) -1, 0 or 1. l = 0, (3s) must be 0. Experiments showed a 4 th quantum no. was needed Spin quantum number, M s -+1/2 or -1/2 only. View an e- as a spinning sphere. Spinning charges act as magnets....
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