Cells - Cells Why cells are so small? -SA to volume ratio:...

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Cells Why cells are so small? -SA to volume ratio: increase size (diameter of a sphere), the ratio is lowered\ - solved by elongating cell - volume determines amount of chemical activity within the cell -SA determines rate of substances absorbed and rate of waste removed; also biochemical rxns on membrane surface -as size increases, rate of waste production is increased, increased need for SA Microscopes**** Phosolipid Bilayer -hydrophillic “heads” on the outside -hydrophobic “tails” on the inside -segrates inside and outside to establish internal enviorment Prokayaryotic vs. Eukaratic - Nucleus vs Nucleoid (pro has circular DNA) - pros are generally smaller - proks don’t have membrane enclosed compartments Prokayatic Cells -Cell walls - most bacterial cells have it (however, it’s not a divide)- made of polymer of amino acid sugars (peptidogylcan) -outer membrane (some bacteria) (divide?) -all biochemical rxns mixed together in cytoplasm(-cytoplasm is H 2 O plus ions and soluble molecules) - has genetic information in the nucleoid (rather than the nucleus), localized genetic material - ribosomes- RNA and protein complexes, site of protein synthetis (similar to euk ribosomes) -cynobacteria have internal membranes (cholorplasts) that are able to perform photosynthesis Flagella and Pilli -bacterial flagella different than eukaratic flagella (euk diven by ATP) -pilli are proteins that are shorter than flagella -flagella in pros. aren’t covered by plasma membrane Cytoskeleton -similair to actin in euks -builds a scaffold for cells Eukaryotic Cells -have organelles, organized structures - some organelles can be viewed with visual aid Nucleus
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2009 for the course MOLECULAR 20A taught by Professor Dalbey during the Winter '09 term at University of California, Santa Cruz.

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Cells - Cells Why cells are so small? -SA to volume ratio:...

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