Genotype to Phenotype

Genotype to Phenotype - 12.1 Evidence that Genes code for...

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12.1 Evidence that Genes code for Proteins -phentotype is defined as expression of proteins in this section Beadle and Tatum Experiments on bread mold indicate one gene one enzyme hypothesis - x-ray cells, mutants, use a min. nutritional medium, separate out classes 12.2 From DNA to Proteins - 2 main steps - transcription- copies DNA to mRNA - translation- mRNA to protein - DNA is central dogma – Crick -Messenger Hypothesis - RNA forms a complimentary copy of DNA (mRNA) - mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm - mRNA translated - transcription - Adapter Hypothesis - adapter molecule can bind to both amino acid and recognize sequence - called tRNA, can recognize mRNA and amino acid -RNA viruses are exception: can transcribe own single stranded sequence to make another RNA copy 12.3 DNA to RNA Transcription - DNA RNA requires several components -DNA template - correct ribonuclitide triphsosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, and CTP) - only one strand of DNA is transcribed - produces mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA - RNA polymerases are similar - enzyme binds w/ DNA double helix and binds with bases; recognizes bases - pincer closes once DNA is bound - conformation change to RNA polymerase opening up stretch of DNA - open stretch allows for base pairing Transciption: initiation, elongation, and termination -Initiation-
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Genotype to Phenotype - 12.1 Evidence that Genes code for...

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