Stuff you need to know –Week 3 and 4 Filled in

Stuff you need to know –Week 3 and 4 Filled...

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Introduction to ecology Ecology: definition of, central goals of. - the study of how organisms interact with their environment - understand distribution and abundance of organisms - recognize/explain certain phenomena in nature Abiotic vs biotic environment, abiotic vs biotic interactions - abiotic- non-living world - biotic- living organism - abiotic interactions- interactions between the biotic organisms and the abiotic environment Levels of ecological study: - organsimal- focus on individual and the enviorment o considers physiology, morphology, and behavior - population- focus on the population o understanding the mechanisms of population growth and interactions between members of the population - Community- all organisms that interact in a given area o Interspecific interactions- who comes out ahead/ behind o Community structure o Community response to disturbance - Ecosystem ecology o Includes both biotic and abioitc interactions o Ecosystem= all organisms in an area + abiotic Nutrient cycles NRG flow
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Climate vs weather: - climate- prevailing long term conditions - weather- the temporary atmosphere/ aquatic conditions - “climate is what you expect, weather is what you get” - temp can influence metabolism - sunlight can influence rate of photosynthesis - precipitation can influence how much moisture there is - *other direct and indirect ways to affect organisms Causes for global variation in climate: - foundation: o most sun hits the equator, less hits the poles warmer at equator than the poles o warmer air can hold more moisture, and cool air holds less when warm air cools, it will precipitate out moisture, and when cool air warms, it will suck up moisture o warm air rises, cold air falls - Hadley cell o From 0 ° to 30 °N/S o Air rises when heated at equator o N and S flows in to replace it o Rising air cools, causing rain by equator o Cool air sinks around 30 ° N/S o Cool air picks up moisture from land - Ferrell Cells*** - Polar cells*** Seasonality: - caused by 23 ° tilt of earth and by earth’s revolution - results in… o boreal and austral summers o transitional fall/spring
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o more pronounced at poles Causes of regional variation in climate (topographic influence): - oceans o water has a high specific temp (less variation in temp) o results in cooler summers and warmer winters - mountains o as air is forced up a mountain side, it loses its moisture o creates a rain shadow o slopes facing water body are the “wet” side Biomes Factors regulating terrestrial & aquatic ecosystems - terrestrial ecosystems o temp o precip - aquatic systems o sunlight o nutrients Major terrestrial biomes (tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, temperate grassland, subtropical desert, tropical wet forest)*** Major freshwater biomes (lentic vs lotic systems, streams, lakes/ponds, wetlands) - lentic:
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o still or slowly flowing systems o lakes and ponds littoral zone- shallow enough for rooted vegetation limnetic zone- too deep for vegetation
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2009 for the course BIOE 20c taught by Professor Marinovic during the Summer '09 term at University of California, Santa Cruz.

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Stuff you need to know –Week 3 and 4 Filled...

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