Stuff you need to know Week 2

Stuff you need to know Week 2 - definition of fossil record...

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7/7/09 12:41 PM Stuff you need to know – Week 1 Page 1 of 2 http://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio20c/StuffWk2.html Stuff you need to know – Week 2 Sympatric speciation, mechanisms of etc including polypolidy Hybrids, hybrid zones, consequences of hybrid formation Punctuated equilibrium vs gradualism Evolutionary/developmental biology Homeotic (Hox genes) Gene duplications, orthologs vs paralogs Mutations affecting spatial/temporal expression of regulatory genes Examples of regulatory gene mutations that cause morphological change: -Gremlin in chicken vs duck feet -Ubx in arthropod appendages (insects vs others) -Hox d11 expression in fish vs limb buds Peadomorphosis Using orthologs to infer evolutionary relationships of structures Eg eyes in animals (Pax6 in mice vs eyeless in flies) Phylogenies: Concept of a phylogeny Phylogenetic tree: branches, nodes, tips, root, outgroup, ingroup, sister taxa, polytomy Monophyletic vs polyphyletic vs paraphyletic group Adaptive radiations, causes of, effects on phylogenetic trees Fossils:
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Unformatted text preview: definition of, fossil record, biases associated with fossils Organic, compressed, cast, vs permineralized fossils Molecular clock, uses & limitations Cladistics: definition of, cladogram vs phylogeny, sympleisomorphy vs synapomorphy, ingroup vs outgroup, problems associated with scoring characters in the matrix (convergent evolution, reverse 7/7/09 12:41 PM Stuff you need to know – Week 1 Page 2 of 2 http://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio20c/StuffWk2.html mutations), maximum parsimony for selecting between different possible cladograms, Phylogenetic inference: case studies in reconstructing phylogenies: theoretical molecular sequence, selfing in phlox plants, ratite evolution, whale evolution Origin of life: Primordial soup – possible mechanisms for formation, formation of organic polymers, formation of protobionts, chemical selection, supplanting of RNA with DNA Major Eons of Earths history and milestones associated with each: Hadean, Archaen, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic...
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Stuff you need to know Week 2 - definition of fossil record...

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