Lecture 2 - Lecture 2, September 1, 2009 Syllabus Questions...

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Lecture 2, September 1, 2009 Syllabus Questions Organelles inside neurons and the distinctions between axons and dendrites; understand some "unique" problems for neurons organelles inside of neurons, in particular axons vs. dendrites axoplasmic transport (retrograde and anterograde), why it is important and the molecular motors by which it occurs (kinesin and dynein) Nissl substance, the Nissl stain, and the phenomenon of chromatolysis How do molecules move in solution? Diffusion--let's illustrate the issues with some simple considerations A. Sucrose--drop a crystal into water movement occurs down concentration gradient we would have to perform work, expend energy, to generate such a gradient where none existed B. Sucrose, Protein--separated by a membrane First with membrane impermeable No movement of either solute can occur across the membrane However, water can move--channels "aquaporins" Problem is osmolarity: solutions we place outside of cells can be isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic Therefore one crucial consideration for solutions we place outside of cells is their osmolariy--important consideration for any kind of solution we allow to come into contact with cells--physiological saline; Ringer's solution To illustrate a second point, let's consider what would happen if the solutions are iso- osmolar, but we make the membrane permeable to sucrose What would happen? Illustrates the point--cells must be very careful as in regulating their membrane's
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Lecture 2 - Lecture 2, September 1, 2009 Syllabus Questions...

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