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1 Chapter One CHEMISTRY: THE STUDY OF CHANGE Introduction Matter and Its Properties Units of Measurement Math Review and Significant Figures Factor-Label Method of Problem Solving INTRODUCTION STUDY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe matter and its physical states. 2. Describe the four main parts of the scientific method. 3. Define chemistry. About Chemistry. Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupies space. The three physical states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. All matter exists in one or another of these three states, depending on the temperature and pressure of the surrounding environment. Chemists are concerned with developing the tools used to study matter and the concepts useful in describing the properties of matter. They direct their efforts toward the purposeful changing of given forms of matter into new and different substances, and to the discovery of the properties and uses of these new materials. Chemists usually observe matter and the changes it undergoes in the macroscopic world . This refers to the objects we can see and touch, and deal with everyday. However, our interpretations of matter involve atoms and molecules and their properties. Because atoms and molecules are so extremely small, we refer to them as belonging to the microscopic world . Chemists, like other scientists, make use of the scientific method which can be broken down into four parts: observation and experiment, hypothesis, laws, and theory. The first step is to define the problem clearly. That is you must know what you are trying to find out about. During experiments observations are made and information is collected about the system being studied. After a large amount of data related to a certain phenomenon have been collected, sometimes the information can be summarized in a simple verbal or mathematical statement called a law . At this point a hypothesis may be formulated to provide a tentative explanation of the facts. A hypothesis is only temporary and is meant to be a working model or explanation. It is often adjusted as new information is discovered. As a hypothesis grows and successfully survives many experimental tests, it develops into a theory. A theory is a unifying principle that explains a large body of facts and laws. Besides providing explanations for the laws of science, its role is to aid in making predictions that lead to new knowledge. In fact theories are often tested by carefully devised experiments that confirm or disprove their predictions. Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website
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2 / Chemistry: The Study of Change MATTER AND ITS PROPERTIES STUDY OBJECTIVES 1. Distinguish between elements, compounds, and solutions.
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