Hcl clono2 c l 2 hno3 the first sunlight of spring can

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Unformatted text preview: se PSCs provide a surface for reactions converting HCl and chlorine nitrate to molecular chlorine. HCl + ClONO2 → C l 2 + HNO3 The first sunlight of spring can trigger the release of chlorine atoms by photodissociation of chlorine molecules. Cl 2 + h ν → C l + Cl The only sure way to save the ozone layer is a complete worldwide ban on CFC manufacture. To this end 24 nations met in Montreal in 1988. The Montreal Protocol is designed to achieve a 35% reduction in worldwide CFC production. EXERCISES 4. 5. Back a. What region of the atmosphere contains the ozone layer? b. Ozone is distributed over approximately what range of altitudes? What is the average concentration of ozone in the ozone layer? Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website 3 60 / Chemistry in the Atmosphere 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What is the overall reaction for the formation of ozone in the stratosphere? Give three reactions that are examples of photodissociation. What does the abbreviation CFC stand for? Write the formulas of two CFCs. What is a "molecular reservior" of atmospheric chlorine. What is the Montreal Protocol? THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND ACID RAIN STUDY OBJECTIVES 1. 2. Explain how some gases produce a greenhouse effect. Describe the proposed chemical events by which sulfur dioxide leads to acid rain. The Greenhouse Effect. Each year sees another 9 gigatons (Gtons) of carbon dioxide added to the Earth's atmosphere. This is only about 1/1,000,000 of the total mass of the atmosphere. Though relatively small in amount, carbon dioxide has an important effect on the Earth's average temperature. Carbon dioxide, water, and a few other gases such as methane are called "greenhouse gases." This means that they act like the glass in a greenhouse. They let sunlight through, but do not let heat out. The main components of the air, O2 and N2 , are not greenhouse gases. "Greenhouse warming" occurs in the following way. Visible light from the sun passes directly through the main components of the atmosphere...
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