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and plants. Volcanoes
Methane, nitrous oxide, and CFCs.
SO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H2 SO3 (aq)
SO3 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H2 SO4 (aq)
Carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons.
Those in #15.
Ra. Noble gas elements.
Polonium-214 and polonium-218.
Lung cancer. Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website Chemistry in the Atmosphere 3 65
1. 2. The answer lies in just where the ozone is. Ozone occurs naturally in the stratosphere which is too far away
for people to come into contact with ozone. However in the troposphere ozone concentrations are
significantly increased by automobile exhaust reacting with sunlight. Humans (and other living things) can
inhale too much ozone. Health effects include severe respiratory and eye irritation. Ozone in cities is a
Liming is the process of adding quicklime to lakes and soils to reduce their acidity. This process is very
expensive due to the enormous transportation costs involved. It is much less expensive to remove SO2 at
the power plant as it is formed (again with quicklime). In this way all of the sulfur (SO2 ) is in one place,
rather than spread out over the landscape as sulfuric acid. Practice Test
1. In the troposphere the temperature decreases as altitude increases. In the stratosphere temperature increases
2. a. O 2 (g) + h ν → 2O(g)
O(g) + O 2 (g) → O 3 (g)
b. O 2
3. a. Cl(g) + O3 (g) → ClO(g) + O2 (g)
ClO(g) + O(g) → O 2 (g) + Cl(g)
b. The catalyst is atomic Cl, and the intermediate is chlorine monoxide, ClO.
4. HCFC stands for hydrochlorofluorocarbon. CF3 CHCl 2
5. The trapping of heat near the Earth's surface by atmospheric gases, particularly carbon dioxide.
6. Combustion and decomposition of trees and plants produces CO2 . Removing trees reduces photosynthesis
which would normally consume CO2 .
7. Landfills and natural gas leaks.
8. Emission of IR to space.
9. Fe(s) + 2H +(aq) → Fe 2+ (aq) + H2 (g)
CaCO3 (s) + 2H +(aq) → Ca 2+ (aq) + CO2 (g) + H 2 O(l)
10. a. Carbon monoxide, NO, and unburned hydrocarbons.
b. CO is toxic but may not be involved in reactions producing smog. NO is oxidized to NO2 .
Photodecomposition of NO2 leads to ozone and PAN. Oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons produces
alcohols and organic acids that eventually form aerosols and haze.
11. The wavelength is 376 nm, which is in the UV region.
12. 1. Kills fish, salamnders, and frogs. 2. Damage to leaves and needles of trees. Toxic to vegetation.
3. Damage to stone buildings and monuments. Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website...
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- Spring '08