What is it how can it be converted to graphite list

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Unformatted text preview: zing agent and a reducing agent. PRACTICE TEST 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Back Write chemical equations to show the two commercial methods of preparation of H2 (g). What are two important uses of hydrogen? Write a chemical equation to show the synthesis of boric acid from kernite. Coke is used to reduce Fe2 O3 in iron production. What is it? How can it be converted to graphite? List the major uses of: a. N2 b . NH 3 c. HNO3 Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website 4 28 / Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What is aqua regia? What are the acid anhydrides of HNO3 , HNO 2 , H 3 PO4 , and H3 PO3 ? Write a balanced overall equation that shows the synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia. Why is calcium phosphate not used directly as a fertilizer? What chemical compounds contain phosphate in commercial fertilizers? Give the formulas and names of the allotropic forms of oxygen and sulfur. List several uses of O 2 . Distinguish between the peroxide ion and the superoxide ion. Write chemical equations to show the preparations of the elemental forms of the halogens. Write the chemical formulas of the halic acids. Describe the colors and the standard physical states at 25°C of the diatomic halogens. Write equations for the preparation of three interhalogens: ClF3 , BrF 5 , and IF7 . ANSWERS Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Back 3 2Al(s) + 3HCl(aq) → AlCl3 (aq) + 2 H 2 (g) –1, +1 NaH Brønsted base. H– (aq) + H2 O(l) → OH– (aq) + H2 (g) The melting point of diamond is related to the energy required to break C—C bonds. In diamond each carbon atom is covalently linked to four other carbon atoms. To turn diamond into a liquid about half of these bonds must be broken. This requires extremely high temperatures. 2– CN–, a C2 and a C4– ions CO –5 and –3 4NH3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) → 4NO(g) + 6H 2 O(g) 2NO(g) + O2 (s) → 2NO2 (s) 2NO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → HNO2 (aq) + HNO3 (aq) White phosphorus is very unstable compared to red phosphorus. ozone steelmaking –1, –2, 0 2H2 O2 (aq) → 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) K2 O, K 2 O2 , and KO2 S(s) + O2 (g) → SO 2 (g) 2SO2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2SO 3 (g) SO3 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H2 SO4 (aq) F 2 and Cl2 Cl 2 (g) + 2Br– (aq) → 2Cl– (aq) + Br2 (l) HCl, HBr, and HI F2 a. Cl2 (g) + 2I – (aq) → 2Cl– (aq) + I2 (aq) Br2 (g) + 2I – (aq) → 2Br– (aq) + I2 (aq) b.Cl2 (g) + 2NaOH(aq) → NaOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2 O(l) Br2 (g) + 2NaOH(aq) → NaOBr(aq) + NaBr(aq) + H2 O(l) Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds / 4 29 Conceptual Questions 1. 2. Because hydrogen can be oxidized to the H+ ion, it resembles the alkali metals. And because it can be reduced to the H– ion it resembles the halogen elements. Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s1 making it similar to the alkali metals. It also forms diatomic molecules just as the halogens do. H2 is a gas at room temperature. As a result of these properties, hydrogen resembles the alkali metals and the halogens. Br2 can act as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent because Br has three oxidation states, namely –1 in Br– ion, 0 in Br2 , and +1 in OBr – . Therefore, Br2 can be an oxidizing agent by accepting electrons and being reduced to Br– ion. Br 2 can also be a reducing agent by donating electrons and being oxidized to the OBr– ion. Practice Test 1. C 3 H8 (g) + 3H 2 O(g) → 3CO(g) + 7H2 (g) C(s) + H 2 O(g) → CO(g) + H2 (g) 2. To make ammonia and partially hydrogenated food products. 3. Na2 B4 O7 . 4H2 O + H 2 SO4 + H2 O → 4H3 BO3 + Na 2 SO4 4. When coal is distilled in the absence of oxygen to release volatile hydrocarbons, the high carbon residue is called coke. Coke is made into graphite by the Acheson process, in which an electric current is passed through coke for several days. 5. a. Create atmospheres devoid of O2 ; a coolant b. Ammonia fertilizer c. Nitrate fertilizer and explosives 6. A mixture of 3 volumes of concentrated HCl to 1 volume of concentrated HNO3 . 7. NO2 , NO, P2 O5 , P 2 O3 8. 12NH3 + 21O2 → 8HNO3 + 14H2 O + 4NO 9. It is insoluble. 10. Diammonium phosphate, (NH 4 )2 HPO4 ; superphosphate Ca(HPO4 )2 . H2 O 11. O, O 2 , O 3 ; rhombic S8 , monoclinic S8 12. In the blast furnace for steel making, medical uses, welding. 2– – 13. Peroxide ion O2 ; superoxide O2 14. CaF 2 + H2 SO4 → 2HF + CaSO4 2HF → H2 + F 2 2NaCl + 2H2 O → 2NaOH + H 2 + C l 2 Cl 2 + 2I– → 2Cl– + I2 15. HIO3 , HBrO3 , HClO3 . The comparable fluorine acid does not exist. 16. I2 (s), black crystals; Br2 (l), dark red liquid; Cl2 (g), a yellow-green gas; F2 (g), pale yellow gas 17. Cl 2 + 3 F 2 → 2ClF3 KBr + 3F 2 → KF + BrF5 KI + 4F2 → KF + IF7 _______________________________________________________________________________ Back Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website...
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2009 for the course CHEM 102 taught by Professor Bastos during the Spring '08 term at Adelphi.

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