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Unformatted text preview: zing agent and a reducing agent. PRACTICE TEST
5. Back Write chemical equations to show the two commercial methods of preparation of H2 (g).
What are two important uses of hydrogen?
Write a chemical equation to show the synthesis of boric acid from kernite.
Coke is used to reduce Fe2 O3 in iron production. What is it? How can it be converted to graphite?
List the major uses of: a. N2 b . NH 3 c. HNO3 Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website 4 28 / Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds
17. What is aqua regia?
What are the acid anhydrides of HNO3 , HNO 2 , H 3 PO4 , and H3 PO3 ?
Write a balanced overall equation that shows the synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia.
Why is calcium phosphate not used directly as a fertilizer?
What chemical compounds contain phosphate in commercial fertilizers?
Give the formulas and names of the allotropic forms of oxygen and sulfur.
List several uses of O 2 .
Distinguish between the peroxide ion and the superoxide ion.
Write chemical equations to show the preparations of the elemental forms of the halogens.
Write the chemical formulas of the halic acids.
Describe the colors and the standard physical states at 25°C of the diatomic halogens.
Write equations for the preparation of three interhalogens: ClF3 , BrF 5 , and IF7 . ANSWERS
21. Back 3 2Al(s) + 3HCl(aq) → AlCl3 (aq) + 2 H 2 (g)
Brønsted base. H– (aq) + H2 O(l) → OH– (aq) + H2 (g)
The melting point of diamond is related to the energy required to break C—C bonds. In diamond each
carbon atom is covalently linked to four other carbon atoms. To turn diamond into a liquid about half of
these bonds must be broken. This requires extremely high temperatures.
CN–, a C2 and a C4– ions
–5 and –3
4NH3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) → 4NO(g) + 6H 2 O(g)
2NO(g) + O2 (s) → 2NO2 (s)
2NO2 (g) + H 2 O(l) → HNO2 (aq) + HNO3 (aq)
White phosphorus is very unstable compared to red phosphorus.
–1, –2, 0
2H2 O2 (aq) → 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g)
K2 O, K 2 O2 , and KO2
S(s) + O2 (g) → SO 2 (g)
2SO2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2SO 3 (g)
SO3 (g) + H 2 O(l) → H2 SO4 (aq)
F 2 and Cl2
Cl 2 (g) + 2Br– (aq) → 2Cl– (aq) + Br2 (l)
HCl, HBr, and HI
a. Cl2 (g) + 2I – (aq) → 2Cl– (aq) + I2 (aq)
Br2 (g) + 2I – (aq) → 2Br– (aq) + I2 (aq)
b.Cl2 (g) + 2NaOH(aq) → NaOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2 O(l)
Br2 (g) + 2NaOH(aq) → NaOBr(aq) + NaBr(aq) + H2 O(l) Forward Main Menu TOC Study Guide TOC Textbook Website MHHE Website Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds / 4 29
1. 2. Because hydrogen can be oxidized to the H+ ion, it resembles the alkali metals. And because it can be
reduced to the H– ion it resembles the halogen elements. Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s1
making it similar to the alkali metals. It also forms diatomic molecules just as the halogens do. H2 is a gas
at room temperature. As a result of these properties, hydrogen resembles the alkali metals and the halogens.
Br2 can act as both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent because Br has three oxidation states, namely –1
in Br– ion, 0 in Br2 , and +1 in OBr – . Therefore, Br2 can be an oxidizing agent by accepting electrons and
being reduced to Br– ion. Br 2 can also be a reducing agent by donating electrons and being oxidized to the
OBr– ion. Practice Test
1. C 3 H8 (g) + 3H 2 O(g) → 3CO(g) + 7H2 (g)
C(s) + H 2 O(g) → CO(g) + H2 (g)
2. To make ammonia and partially hydrogenated food products.
3. Na2 B4 O7 . 4H2 O + H 2 SO4 + H2 O → 4H3 BO3 + Na 2 SO4
4. When coal is distilled in the absence of oxygen to release volatile hydrocarbons, the high carbon residue is
called coke. Coke is made into graphite by the Acheson process, in which an electric current is passed
through coke for several days.
5. a. Create atmospheres devoid of O2 ; a coolant
b. Ammonia fertilizer
c. Nitrate fertilizer and explosives
6. A mixture of 3 volumes of concentrated HCl to 1 volume of concentrated HNO3 .
7. NO2 , NO, P2 O5 , P 2 O3
8. 12NH3 + 21O2 → 8HNO3 + 14H2 O + 4NO
9. It is insoluble.
10. Diammonium phosphate, (NH 4 )2 HPO4 ; superphosphate Ca(HPO4 )2 . H2 O
11. O, O 2 , O 3 ; rhombic S8 , monoclinic S8
12. In the blast furnace for steel making, medical uses, welding.
13. Peroxide ion O2 ; superoxide O2
14. CaF 2 + H2 SO4 → 2HF + CaSO4
2HF → H2 + F 2
2NaCl + 2H2 O → 2NaOH + H 2 + C l 2
Cl 2 + 2I– → 2Cl– + I2
15. HIO3 , HBrO3 , HClO3 . The comparable fluorine acid does not exist.
16. I2 (s), black crystals; Br2 (l), dark red liquid; Cl2 (g), a yellow-green gas; F2 (g), pale yellow gas
17. Cl 2 + 3 F 2 → 2ClF3
KBr + 3F 2 → KF + BrF5
KI + 4F2 → KF + IF7
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