Notecard for Test 4

Notecard for Test 4 - Cytoskeleton is composed of proteins...

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Cytoskeleton is composed of proteins that makes the fiber: 1 .Microfilaments (G-actin)-smallest of all that is composed with 2 coils of ATP attached G-actin at + end and – end that breaks off of hydrolyzed ADP G-actin, especially concentrated in between layer of cytoplasm that’s just below the plasma membrane or called cortex, crawling cell use microfilament: trailing edge(stress fiber-forward and backward forces), middle (force dispersed), leading edge(filopodium-all forward force). 2 .Microtubules (a&b Tubulin)-hollow cylinder, largest fiber that is most dynamic(constantly adding dimmers) in which it shapes the cell and transport vesicles and molecules (ex.centrosome(capping protein grab MT then stabilize to grow longer), spindle pole, basal body of cilium, Cilia & Flagella-Axoneme:9doublet outer circle(a&b tubulin)+2single(a&b) in middle=2axoneme and other 2 are linked by linking protein that cause bending to move), constructed by dimmers of a&b tubulin which forms long beads of protofilament that forms sheet that rolls into hollow tube, MTOC(center of negative) is – part that cause tubules to stretch out in + direction, GTP is attached to tubulin to be added and hydrolyze to GDP to break off, Motor protein that carries vesicles that are used in transport from MTOC are Kinesins(walks toward +) & Dyneins(toward -) 3 .IF (many proteins)-located in entire cell ( between nucleus lamina and envelope), connect cells&withstand mechanical stress, not motile, composition is most strong and stable(main skeleton of cell) by a-helical monomer then dimer coiling then staggered tetramer of 2 dimers then 8 tetramers twisted to form ropelike IF. Different type of IF used to diagnose cancer: IF @ cytoplasmic (Keratins-skin, Vimentin-connective tissue, Neurofilaments-Nerve cell, Desmin-Muscle cell) & IF @ Nucleus (Nuclear lamins-found in all animal cells). 4 . Microtubule & Microfilament Manipulation by Drugs : [Vincristine/vinblastine, Colchicine-prevent MT formation, Taxol-stablize MT formation], [Cytochalasin-prevent actinfilament/microfilament formation, Phalloidin-stops depolymerization of actin]. Muscle Contraction a muscle cell has bundle of myofibrils and each of them has many sarcomere.
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2009 for the course BIO 272 taught by Professor Wu during the Fall '08 term at Fullerton College.

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Notecard for Test 4 - Cytoskeleton is composed of proteins...

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