microbio notes for test 2

microbio notes for test 2 - The Innate Immune System I. The...

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The Innate Immune System I. The Immune System: There are two basic arms of the immune system: A. Acquired Immunity 1. Also called cognate immunity because it is a learned response. We are exposed to the specific microbe and the acquired immune system will learn to recognize it and respond to it. 1. Example, we have measles when we are children, but our immune system learns to identify that specific pathogen and is ready for subsequent exposures. 2. It has acquired the ability to recognize that pathogen. 2. The time to become activated can be from days to a week 3. Very specific, but it takes time to become activated , not just hours, but days. Some bacteria can divide every twenty minutes. So by the time 5 hours goes by one bacterium would now be more than 32,000 bacteria. Time we don’t want to give them. I. Innate immunity A. It is the first line of host defense, typically works by blocking the invasion or the invasive properties of the microbe or its replication. 1. Natural or innate immunity 2. Non specific, no previous exposure 3. First line of defense-blocks the invasive properties of the micoorganisms 4. First line of defense = physical bariers/walls - skin/epithelium 5. You acquire it at birth-or they are things that come with our body. 1. Something that is non-specific, meaning it isn’t directed against on specific pathogen or organism 1. You don’t have to have previous exposure to an organism to have this type of immunity. I. Overview of natural immunity or the rapid response immune system (Fig. 15.3) A. First line defenses 1. Physical barriers (Fig. 15.1) 2. Epithelium (Fig 15.2) a. Stratified squamous epithelium -overlapping epithelial cells that becomes keratinized to seal the surface of our body. b. Skin, lining of mouth c. Water resistant d. Dead at surface e. Viruses can't replicate in them because it is dead cells f. Columnar epithelium 1. Passageways of respirratory system, various tubes of the reproductive system
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2. Have cilia (with mucous ontop of it) a. Epidemis: largest organ in body 1. Becomes a thicker wall at risk areas such as your feet, or the palms of your hands 2. Goblet cell produces mucous 3. Cilia sweep bacteria toward stomach 4. Expulsion: sneezing (as an example) a. Mucous membranes 1. Ciliated stratified/pseudostratified columnar epithelium 1. Mucous made by goblet cells in ciliated columnar epithelium 1. cilia moves the mucous along- 2. http://pediatrics.med.unc.edu/div/infectdi/pcd/images/normal1.mpg 1. Ingestion-cilia sweep it to the stomach where the acids there destroy it. 1. Expulsion- 1. Problems i. Some bacteria actually like mucous membranes because it keeps them from drying out i. Winter environment 1. Dry, stale winter air reduces viscousness of mucous 1. Diseases a. Break in barrier of epithelium=infection 1. Simple break in barrier allows microbes in a. Some bacteria hide inside a cell (Fig. 17.7) 1. Can travel from cell to cell to avoid immune response (out of cell) a. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2009 for the course MICR 255 taught by Professor Kramer during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

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microbio notes for test 2 - The Innate Immune System I. The...

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