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geosc7 - 1 A glacier almost always flows A B C D E From...

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1. A glacier almost always flows: A. From where bedrock is high to where bedrock is  low. B. From north to south. C. From south to north. D. Up a mountain. E. From where the glacier’s upper surface is high  to where the glacier’s upper surface is low. The great ice sheet of Greenland spreads from its central dome, so the ice on the south side is moving south,  the ice on the north side is moving north, the east-side ice moves east and the west-side ice moves west. Ice  flows down many mountains, such as Mount Rainier, but ice came across the Great Lakes and up into the US.  Thus, ice flows from where its upper surface is high to where its upper surface is low. Points Earned: 0/1 Correct Answer: E Your Response: A 2. In a glacier, the ice moves fastest: A. Halfway between the bed and the surface. B. At the bed, where ice meets rock. C. At the bed on some glaciers, halfway between the bed  and the surface on other glaciers, and at the surface on  still other glaciers. D. At the upper surface, where ice meets air. E. When trying to escape from Pepsi commercials. The ice at the surface rides along on that beneath but deforms a bit on its own, and so goes fastest. The fast- food ketchup-packet model in which the mid-depth ice goes fastest would require that the upper and lower  pieces be especially strong and rigid (which they aren’t; and, it might require someone huge stomping on the 
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glacier). The bed is held back by friction with the rock. And ice lacks the sentience needed to attempt to avoid  commercials. Points Earned: 0/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: B 3. The recent changes in the amount of ice on Earth over time occurred: A. Because changes in the Earth’s orbit have caused large  changes in the total amount of sunshine received by the  Earth. B. Because changes in the Earth’s orbit have caused  changes in the amount of sunshine received during  certain seasons at different places on Earth. C. Because of the actions of a Serbian mathematician,  Milutin Milankovitch. D. Because flocks of giant ptarmigan and herds of giant  marmots clustered on the edges of the ice sheets,  which melted the ice. E. Because the Earth has swung through giant clouds of  dust in space that blocked the sun and caused global  cooling. Milankovitch studied the effect of orbital features on received sunshine, and hypothesized that this may have  caused ice ages, but he surely didn’t cause the ice ages, which happened long before he was born. The orbital  changes have little effect on the total sunshine, but do move that sunshine around, with important  consequences. The giant-dust-cloud hypothesis was entertained seriously by scientists for a while but doesn’t 
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