19THPHILIPPINE SOCIETYLOS TIEMPOS DE SANGRE- Your social status is not basedon your economic status but onyour race/blood.HIERARCHY1. SPANIARDSa. Peninsulares– Theycame from the IberianPeninsula. They wereborn in Spain.b. Insulares– They arewho can be considered asFilipinos (nickname). TheywereborninthePhilippines(insularisland).2. MESTIZOa. Mestizo de español–Half-Filipino and half-Spanish.a. Mestizo de sangley–Half-Filipino and half-Chinese.3. INDIO/NATURALES4. TSINO/SANGLEYNOTES ON HIERARCHY:- The Spaniards and Mestizosaccount to less than 5% of thepopulation. They pay thehighest taxes and privilegedwith full/complete rights- The Indio/Naturales account to90% of the population. They paythe lowest taxes.- Peninsulares are usuallysoldiers/workers so they are notas affluent.- The mixed bloods are eligibleto apply for mestizo status sothey are usually affluent. - The Tsino/Sangley are the onestaxed heavily. They range fromwealthybusinessmenorlaborers.NOTES ON WHO IS FILIPINO:- The one who can beconsidered Filipinos are theSpaniardsborninthePhilippines – the insulares.- Eventually, the meaning ofFilipino changed/transformed inthe last decades of samecentury.- No one took the name Filipinoforthemselves–theytransformed it.- How did Philippine societydivided by blood ended up withnational aspirations?ECONOMY/ECONOMIC CONDITIONSVARGAS REFORMS- Tried to diversify economy byshifting to multiple trade routesand export-based agriculturaleconomy.END OF GALLEON TRADE-Reasonforamoreliberal/open-mind set of trade.1834- Manilawas open to WorldTrade (French, German, UK, andUS)- The were ports that becamenew trading centers of their own(Iloilo and Cebu)- British were more centered onIloilo with a strong British-Chinese trade.- Iloilo is the second mostdeveloped city / active tradingport.CHINESE DIASPORA-Spanishopenedmoreopportunities for the Chinese inthe Philippines.a. Obtain or acquire lands(particularly Chinese whostayed in the Philippinesfor quite some time)b. Inherit propertiesc.Openedjobs/professions for theChinese- Chinese were given a biggerrole in the economy rather thanjust being in labor.- During this time, there is weakrule in the Manchu dynasty with
prominent chaos and rebellion.This makes the economycollapse leaving Chinese ofdifferentprofessions/backgrounds leave(Chinese Migration). They headto Asia and America.ECONOMY/ECONOMIC CONDITIONSState of agriculture before thereforms(whichimpacted)=subsistent/self-sustainingShifting to export-based economy =focused on cash crops (which are notedible/staple foods) despite havinglittle farm land (mountains are moreprominent)1836– Rice was second majorcommodity which is not a goodprofitable export because:- Limited harvesting season(duetomonsoonsandtyphoons)comparedtocompetitors(VietnamandThailand)- Limited/small space for ricefields1870– Philippines began riceimports (rice deficit) = no longer self-sufficientMajor crops– helped shapedeconomy1. Sugar(essential to social-
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- Spring '00
- Philippine Revolution, Katipunan, Hierarchy