Chapters_3___4_Planning Spoken & Written Messages

Chapters_3___4_Planning Spoken & Written Messages -...

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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 1 Planning Spoken and Written Messages Chapter 3 & 4
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 2 The Importance of Grammar The Associated Press, London, June 19, 1999--A comma in the wrong place of a sales contract cost Lockheed Martin $70 million, The Financial Times reported Friday. An international contract for the U.S. based aerospace group’s C-130J Hercules had the comma misplaced by one decimal point in the equation that adjusted the sales price for changes to the inflation rate, the London-based newspaper said. In Europe, commas are used instead of periods to mark decimal points. It was a mistake, the newspaper quoted James A. “Micky” Blackwell, president of Lockheed’s aeronautics division as saying. But the customer, who Lockheed refused to name, held them to the price. “That comma cost Lockheed $70 million,” Blackwell was quoted as telling the newspaper.
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 3 Reader Reaction With Written Documents Four reactions -- pleasure, interest, displeasure, or no interest. These are determined by: emotional involvement results being presented expected reception of information
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 4 Time Spent in the 5 Steps of Business Writing 20% Exploring - determining channel and identifying information needed 10% Planning - organizing message content 30% Writing - using outline developed in planning to write from start to finish without rereading 35% Revising - editing what you wrote by deleting, moving, or rewording 5% Proofreading - checking for grammatical errors, misspelled words, typos
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 5 Process Steps Determine the purpose and the channel Envision the audience Adapt the message to the audience Organize deductively or inductively Write the first draft Revise for clarity and conciseness Proofread for accuracy
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 6 Determining the Purpose and Selecting a Channel Identify your reason for writing Identify the most effective communication channel Determine your central idea
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 7 Envisioning the Audience Consider the Age Economic level Education and occupation Needs of the receiver Culture Rapport Expectations
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 8 Adapting the Message to the Audience Establish rapport Address receiver’s needs and concerns Empathize Simplify the organization of the message Use bias-free language Maintain goodwill Positive, tactful tone Communicating ethically and responsibly
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 9 Organizing the Message Outline Sequence ideas to achieve goals Determine if the deductive or inductive approach should be used
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September 22, 2009 Lehman and Dufrene 10 Emphasis: Writer, Neutral, and Reader Writer emphasis- - Central State College is happy to announce the opening
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Chapters_3___4_Planning Spoken & Written Messages -...

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