4 BA 3361 - Motivation - #4 Motivation Need Theories of...

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#4 Motivation Need Theories of Motivation Use personal characteristics or attributes to explain motivation Apply only to healthy personalities Disorders such as psychoses can warp motivation General idea is that an unsatisfied need created tension The greater the tension, the greater the drive to seek relief (motivation) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization- desire for self-fulfillment, “be, all that you can be” Esteem needs- deal with self confidence, self efficacy, and self worth Belonging and Love- desire to give and receive affection and to be in the company of others Safety needs- desire to be protected from physical or economic harm Physiological needs- basic requirements of the human body, food, water, sleep Maslow People seek satisfaction of the needs roughly in the order of his presented hierarchy- but not always Maslow did not think that needs alone were the basis of human behavior Must also consider the person’s behavior and the environment Can be useful in clinical work, but has obvious limitations E.R.G. Theory Describes three basic groups of human needs Existence needs- physical and material wants Relatedness needs- same as belonging and love Growth needs-to be creative and develop All persons have these needs, in varying degree Similar to Maslow The hierarchy can be traversed in many ways Murray’s Theory of Human Personality Views people as adaptive when faced with a changing environment
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Factors internal to the person ( Needs ) and external factors combine to govern behavior Humans learn from interaction with the external environment They develop pre-conceptions about things they have not directly experienced Two classes of Needs Physical Needs- satisfaction of physiological processes Psychological needs- focus on emotion and mental satisfaction Basic Needs ( Murray, Explorations in Personality) Murray’s Human Personality Theory, cont. People act in a way that satisfies a need A healthy person can display opposite needs with cognitive dissonance Multiple needs often decide a person’s behavior Understanding “need structures” can help a manager effectively influence the behavior of employees Employee with a need for recognition may respond to praise McClelland’s Theory of Needs The Need for Achievement - the drive to excel and solve problems, take responsibility for the results of their behavior The Need for Power - focuses on controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person, tries to control The Need for Affiliation - focuses on maintaining and restoring positive relations with others, wants close warm relationships Each of us will be influenced by one of these needs at different times Each of us however, has a dominant inclination towards one of the needs Employees with high achievement needs: Experience job satisfaction from good performance
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4 BA 3361 - Motivation - #4 Motivation Need Theories of...

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