ECE 110 M.C. Brunet
Electrical Circuits (Generalities), and Signals
Handout 2
Symbol:
V
Unit:
Volts
THE VOLTAGE:
to create an orderly movement of electrons we need:
closed circuit
(i.e. connected components)
a voltage source
(“power supply”)
A Voltage Source:
the battery (Volta 1792)

h
i


+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
 
 
 
 
There is no
accumulation
of charge
anywhere in
the circuit (wire)



Chemical energy (E)
forces movement
f electrons
There is a strong relationship
between the current
through
and the voltage
across any
M.C. BRUNET
ECE 110
UIUC
2.1
Potential:
V=E/Q
of electrons
component in a circuit.
I = f(V) (see later topics)
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View Full DocumentECE 110 M.C. Brunet
Electrical Circuits (Generalities), and Signals
Handout 2
A Circuit:
TERMINOLOGY
component
wire
A Node:
Any point on a wire (
A
)
EL4
Set of components
connected by wires
A
Terminals:
Wires connecting an element (nodes
A
and
B
are the two terminals for the component
EL4
)
B
V
A
= potential at A with
respect
to the
ground
Ground
=
any node in the circuit
arbitrarily
hosen as a
ference
ode
Voltage:
voltage at Node
A
(
)
chosen as a
reference
node.
[V(Ground)=0 is taken]
Voltage
difference of quantities
=
Symbol
for Ground:
(also:
,
)
M.C. BRUNET
ECE 110
UIUC
2.2
OTATION:
oltage cross
lement
POLARITY OF VOLTAGE
NOTATION:
Voltage across
element
+

V
polarity
element
A
B
The
polarity
of the voltage does
not
imply
ny particular
r the voltage. It states
The numerical value V in the circuit above
is VAB:
any particular
sign
for the voltage. It states
which difference of quantities to measure,
or compute.
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 Spring '08
 HAKEN
 Alternating Current, Volt, brunet, M.C. BRUNET

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