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Chapter_6

# Chapter_6 - Student Study Guide for 5th edition of...

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Student Study Guide for 5 th edition of Thermodynamics by Y. A. Ç engel & M. A. Boles 6-1 Chapter 6-1 Chapter 6: The Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics states that processes occur in a certain direction, not in just any direction. Physical processes in nature can proceed toward equilibrium spontaneously: Water flows down a waterfall. Gases expand from a high pressure to a low pressure. Heat flows from a high temperature to a low temperature. Once it has taken place, a spontaneous process can be reversed, but it will not reverse itself spontaneously. Some external inputs, energy, must be expended to reverse the process. As it falls down the waterfall, water can be collected in a water wheel, cause a shaft to rotate, coil a rope onto the shaft, and lift a weight. So the energy of the falling water is captured as potential energy increase in the weight, and the first law of thermodynamics is satisfied. However, there are losses associated with this process (friction). Allowing the weight to fall, causing the shaft to rotate in the opposite direction, will not pump all of the water back up the waterfall. Spontaneous processes can proceed only in a particular direction. The first law of thermodynamics gives no information about direction; it states only that when one form of energy is converted into another, identical quantities of energy are involved regardless of the feasibility of the process. We know by experience that heat flows spontaneously from a high temperature to a low temperature. But heat flowing from a low temperature to a higher temperature with no expenditure of energy to cause the process to take place would not violate the first law. The first law is concerned with the conversion of energy from one form to another. Joule's experiments showed that energy in the form of heat could not be completely converted into work; however, work energy can be completely converted into heat energy. Evidently heat and work are not

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Student Study Guide for 5 th edition of Thermodynamics by Y. A. Ç engel & M. A. Boles 6-2 Chapter 6-2 completely interchangeable forms of energy. Furthermore, when energy is transferred from one form to another, there is often a degradation of the supplied energy into a less “useful” form. We shall see that it is the second law of thermodynamics that controls the direction processes may take and how much heat is converted into work. A process will not occur unless it satisfies both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. Some Definitions To express the second law in a workable form, we need the following definitions. Heat (thermal) reservoir A heat reservoir is a sufficiently large system in stable equilibrium to which and from which finite amounts of heat can be transferred without any change in its temperature.
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Chapter_6 - Student Study Guide for 5th edition of...

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