Chapter 9 - Chapter 9-Chromosomes Cell reproduction is...

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Chapter 9 - Chromosomes Cell reproduction is similar in all living organisms. Unicellular (one cell) - use cell division to reproduce. Multicellular (many cells) - use cell division for growth, tissue repair, and regeneration. 1. A signal to reproduce (cells are under strict environments) ex. Growth hormones 2. 3. DNA has to be distributed between the two cells. 4. Form division of membrane between the two cells. Prokaryotes: No nucleus Circular piece of DNA Have region on DNA (ori), which is the region of replication. Beginning of DNA replication- start with one strand, then replicate & separate, then the plasma membrane in cytoplasm will divide and form two cells. Cytokinesis- the plasma membrane dividing Binary Fission- the way the prokaryotes divide Eukaryotes: (mitosis or meiosis) Have a nucleus Have many chromosomes Meiosis: reserved for the germ cells. The sex cells (eggs, sperm, & gametes). Involve formation of gametes, produce a haploid cell (have half the amount of DNA as the original cell had). Have shuffling of genetic material. Mitosis: General cell division. Occurs in all somatic cells. All cells except germ cells. 3 Steps of Eukaryotic Cell Division:
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1. DNA has to replicate 2. Nucleus must divide-DNA will be packaged, it will then segregate and a new nucleus/nuclear membrane will form 3. Cytokinesis- The Cell Cycle (involves the whole life cycle): Most cells live within the interphase. 2 divisions of cell cycle: mitosis (cell is actively dividing) & interphase (the cell is there most of the time)-never divides, always in interphase (nerve/muscle). 3 components: Gap 1-G1 : period/gap of time from mitosis to DNA synthesis- during this cells will grow, duplicate some organelles (some cells skip this, such as embryonic cells, if they want to replicate quickly). Synthesis-S
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2009 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Ander... during the Fall '08 term at Detroit Mercy.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9-Chromosomes Cell reproduction is...

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