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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9-Chromosomes Cell reproduction is...

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Chapter 9 - Chromosomes Cell reproduction is similar in all living organisms. Unicellular (one cell) - use cell division to reproduce. Multicellular (many cells) - use cell division for growth, tissue repair, and regeneration. 4 steps before & during cell division: (all regulated by proteins) 1. A signal to reproduce (cells are under strict environments) ex. Growth hormones 2. DNA & cell components need to replicate (proteins, organelles, & ribosomes) 3. DNA has to be distributed between the two cells. 4. Form division of membrane between the two cells. Prokaryotes: No nucleus Circular piece of DNA Have region on DNA (ori), which is the region of replication. Beginning of DNA replication- start with one strand, then replicate & separate, then the plasma membrane in cytoplasm will divide and form two cells. Cytokinesis- the plasma membrane dividing Binary Fission- the way the prokaryotes divide Eukaryotes: (mitosis or meiosis) Have a nucleus Have many chromosomes Meiosis: reserved for the germ cells. The sex cells (eggs, sperm, & gametes). Involve formation of gametes, produce a haploid cell (have half the amount of DNA as the original cell had). Have shuffling of genetic material. Mitosis: General cell division. Occurs in all somatic cells. All cells except germ cells. (Skin, heart, etc.) Division of DNA (aligned & divided). Creates an identical/clone cell. 3 Steps of Eukaryotic Cell Division:
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1. DNA has to replicate 2. Nucleus must divide-DNA will be packaged, it will then segregate and a new nucleus/nuclear membrane will form 3. Cytokinesis- Division of a cell membrane & cytoplasm The Cell Cycle (involves the whole life cycle): Most cells live within the interphase. 2 divisions of cell cycle: mitosis (cell is actively dividing) & interphase (the cell is there most of the time)-never divides, always in interphase (nerve/muscle). 3 components: Gap 1-G1 : period/gap of time from mitosis to DNA synthesis- during this cells will grow, duplicate some organelles (some cells skip this, such as embryonic cells, if they want to replicate quickly).
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